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مینا نورزاده نامقی غلامحسین داوری نژاد حسین انصاری سیدحسین نعمتی احمد زارع فیض آبادی

چکیده

کاربرد انواع مالچ به عنوان یکی از روش¬های مدیریت خاک می¬تواند به طور قابل توجهی میزان تولید محصولات کشاورزی را در مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک که با محدودیت منابع آب مواجه هستند تحت تأثیر قرار دهد. به همین منظور آزمایشی در قالب طرح بلوک¬های کامل تصادفی در دو سال 1393 و 1394 در غرب شهر فیض¬آباد، استان خراسان رضوی بر روی دما، رطوبت خاک، هدایت روزنه¬ای و دمای برگ درختان پسته انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل: M1 (پوشش پلی¬اتیلن سفید زیر خاک با برش عرضی)، M2 (پوشش پلی¬اتیلن سفید زیر خاک با برش دایره¬ای)، M3 (پوشش پلی¬اتیلن UV¬ دار بر روی سطح خاک)، M4 (چیپس چوب)، M5(بقایای جو) و CK(شاهد) بود. نتایج نشان داد که میانگین درصد رطوبت خاک در طول دو سال آزمایش در کلیه مالچ¬ها به¬ویژه مالچ¬های پلاستیکی در مقایسه با شاهد بیشتر بود. در دو سال آزمایش در لایه 30-20 سانتی¬متری خاک، مالچ-های M1، M2 و M3 با 2/35، 35 و 9/38 درجه¬سانتی¬گراد بیشترین و مالچ¬های M4، M5 و CK با 8/28، 6/29 و 8/32 درجه¬سانتی¬گراد کمترین میانگین دمای خاک را نشان دادند و در لایه 60-50 سانتی¬متری خاک نیز نتایج مشابهی مشاهده گردید. همبستگی صفات نشان داد که هدایت روزنه‌ای و دمای برگ به طور قابل توجهی تحت تأثیر دمای خاک قرار می¬گیرند، به¬طوری¬که افزایش دمای خاک تا 40 درجه سانتی¬گراد، در صورتی که سایر فاکتورهای خاکی و آب و هوایی محدودکننده نباشند، باعث بهبود این صفات می¬شود. همچنین نتایج نشان داد که تیمار M3 با وجود حفظ ذخیره رطوبت بالاتر به علت ایجاد دمای بالا در خاک و همچنین تقاضای بالای درختان برای جذب آب و عناصر غذایی در سال پرمحصول (1394) می¬تواند منجر به ایجاد تنش رطوبتی در خاک شود. از این¬رو می¬توان نتیجه گرفت که تیمارهای پلی¬اتیلن سفید به¬ویژه مالچ با برش دایره¬ای (M2) و مالچ¬های چیپس چوب و کاه و کلش جو به علت ایجاد دمای مطلوب برای رشد ریشه، حفظ ذخیره آب و هزینه کمتر گزینه¬های بهتری برای مدیریت آب در مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک با آبیاری سنتی و غرقابی می¬باشند.

جزئیات مقاله

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ارجاع به مقاله
نورزاده نامقیم., داوری نژادغ., انصاریح., نعمتیس., & زارع فیض آبادیا. (2018). تأثیر مالچ¬های آلی و غیرآلی بر تغییرات رطوبت، دمای خاک، هدایت ¬روزنه¬ای و دمای برگ درختان پسته (Pistacia vera L.) در اقلیم خشک و نیمه خشک. علوم باغبانی, 32(1), 75-91. https://doi.org/10.22067/jhorts4.v32i1.60458
نوع مقاله
علمی - پژوهشی