محمد حسین شیخ محمدی نعمت الله اعتمادی علی نیکبخت مصطفی عرب محمد مهدی مجیدی


خشکی و شوری از جمله تنش‌های غیرزنده مضر برای رشد چمن در طیف گسترده‌ای از جهان می‌باشند. هدف از اجرای این آزمایش، انتخاب توده‌های مقاوم به خشکی و شوری چمن جهت استفاده در برنامه مدیریت چمن در شرایط تنش خشکی و شوری بود. آزمایش به‌صورت کرت‌های خردشده بر پایه طرح کاملاً تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. عوامل آزمایش شامل سه تیمار آبیاری بود که به مدت 45 روز اعمال گردید: 1) گیاهان شاهد (بدون تنش)، 2) تنش خشکی (قطع آبیاری به مدت 45 روز) 3) تنش شوری (روزانه 100 میلی‌لیتر با شوری 9 دسی‌زیمنس بر متر). تیمارهای آبیاری به‌عنوان فاکتور اصلی در سه سطح (شاهد، تنش خشکی و تنش شوری) و توده‌های علف گندمی در شش سطح به‌عنوان کرت فرعی در نظر گرفته شدند. نتایج حاصل از این تحقیق نشان داد تنش خشکی و شوری باعث کاهش کیفیت در توده‌های علف گندمي تاجدار شدند و سطح کاهش کیفیت بین توده‌ها متفاوت بود. نتایج ما نشان داد، توده سبزوار تحت تنش خشکی و شوری به ترتیب، بالاترین ارتفاع (52/5 و 86/5 سانتی‌متر) و بیشترین محتوی کلروفیل (85/2 و 75/2 میلی‌گرم برگرم وزن‌تر) را نشان می‌دهد. نتایج به‌دست‌آمده از بررسی کربوهیدرات‌های محلول اندام هوایی، محتوی آب نسبی و میزان نشت الکترولیت نشان داد که در گیاهان تحت تنش خشکی توده‌های دماوند و سبزوار بیشترین مقدار کربوهیدرات‌های محلول (16/332 و 14/345 میلی‌گرم برگرم وزن خشک)، بیشترین محتوی آب نسبی (18/59 و 18/62 درصد) و کمترین میزان نشت الکترولیت (16/48 و 14/59 درصد) را به خود اختصاص دادند. در شرایط تنش شوری، توده دماوند (15/322 میلی‌گرم برگرم وزن خشک) بیشترین کربوهیدرات محلول، توده سبزوار (42/68 درصد) و اراک (14/65 درصد) بیشترین محتوی آب نسبی و توده سبزوار (17/54 درصد) کمترین میزان نشت الکترولیت را نشان دادند. مطابق نتایج این آزمایش رتبه‌بندی مقاومت به تنش خشکی به صورت سبزوار <دماوند<  اراک < ارومیه = تاکستان < هشتگرد و رتبه‌بندی مقاومت به شوری به‌صورت سبزوار <اراک< دماوند < هشتگرد = تاکستان< ارومیه می‌باشد. توده‌های سبزوار و دماوند مقاومت خوبی نسبت به خشکی، و توده‌های سبزوار و اراک مقاومت خوبی نسبت به تنش شوری در مقایسه با سایر توده‌های علف گندمي تاجدار از خود نشان دادند.

جزئیات مقاله

کلمات کلیدی

تنش, چمن, خشکی, شوری, علف گندمي

1- Ahmadi S.S., Basiri M., and Etemadi N. 2013. Comparison of Drought Resistance of Five Species, Cultivars and Populations of Lawn for Using in Landscape. International Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology 13: 391-404.
2- Arghavani M., Kafi M., Babalar M., Naderi R., Hoque M.A., and Murata Y. 2012. Improvement of salt tolerance in Kentucky bluegrass by trinexapac-ethyl. HortScience 47: 1163–1170.
3- Ball S., Qian Y.L., and Stushnof C. 2002. Soluble carbohydrates in two buffalo grass cultivars with contrasting freezing tolerance. HortScience 127: 45–49.
4- Barrs H.D., and Weatherley P.E. 1962. A re-examination of the relative turgidity technique for estimating water deficits in leaves. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences 15: 413-428.
5- Ben-Amor N., Jim´enez A., Megdiche W., Lundqvist M., Sevilla F. and Abdelly C. 2007. Kinetics of the anti-oxidant response to salinity in the halophyte Cakile maritime. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 49: 982–992.
6- Bian S., and Jiang, Y. 2009. Reactive oxygen species, antioxidant enzyme activities and gene expression patterns in leaves and roots of Kentucky bluegrass in response to drought stress and recovery. Scientia Horticulturae 120: 264–270.
7- Blum A., and Ebercon A. 1981. Cell memberane stability as a measure of drought and heat tolerance in wheat. Crop Science 21: 43-47.
8- Bor M., Ozdemir F., and Turkan I. 2003. The effect of salt stress on lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in leaves of sugar beet Beta vulgaris L. and wild beet Beta maritima L. Plant Science 164: 77–84.
9- Cao Y.J., Wei Q., Liao Y., Song H.L., Li X., Xiang C.B. and Kuai B.K. 2009. Ectopic overexpression of At HDG11 in tall fescue resulted in enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stress. Plant CellR 28: 579–588.
10- Carrow R.N., and Duncan R.R. 2003. Improving drought resistance and persistence in turf-type tall fescue. Crop Science 43: 978–984.
11- Chen J., Yan J., Qian Y., Jiang Y., Zhang T., Guo H., Guo A., and Liu J. 2009. Growth responses and ion regulation of four warm season turfgrasses to long-term salinity stress. Scientia Horticulturae 122: 620–625.
12- Chi Q., Jin F., Merewitz E., and Huang B. 2010. Growth and physiological traits associated with drought survival and post-drought recovery in perennial turfgrass species. American Society for Horticultural Science 135: 125–133.
13- Da-Silva J.M., and Arrabaca M.C. 2004. Contributions of soluble carbohydrates to the osmotic adjustment in the C4 grass Setaria sphacelata: A comparison between rapidly and slowly imposed water stresses. Journal of Plant Physiology 161: 551–555.
14- DuBois M., Gilles K.A., Hamilton J.K., Rebers P.A. and Smith F. 1956. Colorimetric Method for Determination of Sugars and Related Substances. Analytical Chemistry 28: 350-356.
15- Fu J., and Huang B. 2001. Involvement of antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in the adaptation of two cool-season grasses to localized drought stress. Environmental and Experimental Botany 45: 105-114.
16- Hanks J.D., Johnson P.G., and Waldron B.L. 2006. Recommended seeding rates for reduced-maintenance, turf-type wheatgrasses. Online. Applied Turfgrass Science. doi: 10.1094/ATS-2006-0808-01-RS.
17- Hanks J.D., Waldron B.L., Johnson P.G., Jensen K.B., and Asay K.H. 2005. Breeding CWG-R crested wheatgrass for reduced-maintenance turf. Crop Science 45: 524-528.
18- 18-Hiscox J.D., and Israelstam G.F. 1979. A method for the extraction of chlorophyll from leaf tissue without maceration. Canadian Journal of Botany 57: 1332-1334.
19- Hu L., and Hu T. 2012. Exogenous Glycine betaine ameliorates the adverse effect of salt stress on perennial ryegrass. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 137: 38-46.
20- Hu L., Huang Z., Liu S., and Fu J. 2012. Growth Response and Gene Expression in Antioxidant-related Enzymes in Two Bermudagrass Genotypes Differing in Salt Tolerance. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 137: 134–143.
21- Hu Z., Amombo E., Gitau M.M., Bi A., Zhu H., Zhang L., Chen L., and Fu J. 2017. Changes of antioxidant defense system and fatty acid composition in bermudagrass under chilling stress. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 142: 101-109.
22- Hu Z., Liu A., Gitau M.M., Huang X., Chen L., and Fu J. 2018. Insights into the MicroRNA-regulated response of bermudagrass to cold and salt stress. Environmental and Experimental Botany 145: 64-74.
23- Huang B. 1997. Drought-Resistance Mechanisms of Seven Warm- Season Turfgrasses under Surface Soil Drying: I. Shoot Response. Crop Science 1858-1863.
24- Huang B. and Fu J. 2001. Growth and physiological responses of tall fescue to surface soil drying. Intl. International Turfgrass Society Research Journal 9: 291-296.
25- Huang B., and Fu J. 2001. Growth and physiological responses of tall fescue to surface soil drying. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 9: 291-296.
26- Huang B., and GAO H. 2000. Root physiological characteristics associated with drought resistance in tall fescue cultivars. Crop Science 40: 196-203.
27- Iftikhar Hussain M.A., Farooq M., Nikoloudakis N., and Khalid N. 2016. Salt and drought stresses in safflower: a review. Agronomy for Sustainable Developmen. Dev. 36:4.
28- Jiang Y., and Huang B. 2000. Effects of drought or heat stress alone and in combination on Kentucky bluegrass. Crop Science 40: 1358-1362.
29- Kamal Uddin M, Juraimi A.S., Ismail M.R., Rahim M.A., and Radziah O. 2009. Growth response of eight tropical turfgrass to salinity. African Journal of Biotechnology 8: 5799–5806.
30- Kaur K., Gupta A.K., and Kaur N. 2007. Effect of water deficit on carbohydrate status and enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in seedlings of wheat cultivars. Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics 44: 223–230.
31- Kerepesi I., and Galiba G. 2000. Osmotic and salt stress-induced alteration in soluble carbohydrate content in wheat seedlings. Crop Science 40: 482–487.
32- Lee G.J., Carrow R.N., and Duncan R.R. 2008. Identification of new soluble sugars accumulated in a halophytic seashore paspalum ecotype under salinity stress. Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology 49(1): 13–19.
33- Lee G.J., Carrow R.N., Duncan R.R., Eiteman M.A. and Rieger M.W. 2008. Synthesis of organic osmolytes and salt tolerance mechanisms in Paspalum vaginatum. Environmental and Experimental Botany 63(1–3): 19–27.
34- Liu Y., Du H., Kai W., Bingru H. and Zhaolong W. 2011. Differential Photosynthetic Responses to Salinity Stress between Two Perennial Grass Species Contrasting in Salinity Tolerance. HortScience 46(2): 311–316.
35- Liu N., Lin S., and Huang B. 2017. Differential Effects of Glycine Betaine and Spermidine on Osmotic Adjustment and Antioxidant Defense Contributing to Improved Drought Tolerance in Creeping Bentgrass. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 142(1): 20-26.
36- Liu T., Zhuang L. and Huang B. 2019.Metabolic adjustment and gene expression for root sodium transport and calcium signaling contribute to salt tolerance in Agrostis grass species. Plant Soil.
37- Longxing H., Zehui H., Shuqian L., and Jinmin F. 2012. Growth response and gene expression in antioxidant-related enzymes in two bermudagrass genotypes differing in salt tolerance. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 137: 134–143.
38- Lv A., Fan N., Xie J., Yuan S., An Y., and Zhou P., 2017. Expression of CdDHN4, a novel YSK2-type dehydrin gene from bermudagrass, responses to drought stress through the ABA-dependent signal pathway. Frontiers in Plant Science 8: 748.
39- Mahajan S., and Tuteja N. 2005. Cold, salinity and drought stress an overview. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 444: 139-158.
40- Malonaka K., Oaiawa T., and Imagawa H. 2006. Changes in chloroplast peroxidase activities in relation to chlorophyll loss in barley leaf segments. Physiologia Plantarum 80(4): 555–560.
41- Mayoral M.L., Atsmon D., Shimshi D., and Gromet-Elhanan Z. 1981. Effect of Water Stress on Enzyme Activities in Wheat and Related Wild Species: Carboxylase Activity, Electron Transport and Photophosphorylation in Isolated Chloroplasts. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 8: 385–393.
42- McCann S.E., and Huang B. 2008. Drought Responses of Kentucky Bluegrass and Creeping Bentgrass as Affected by Abscisic Acid and Trinexapac-ethyl. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 133: 20–26.
43- McCann S.E., and Huang B. 2008. Evaluation of drought tolerance and avoidance traits for six creeping bentgrass cultivars. HortScience 43: 519-524.
44- McCann S.E., and Huang B. 2008. Evaluation of drought tolerance and avoidance traits for
six creeping bentgrass cultivars. Hortscience 43(2): 519–524.
45- Meng L., Guo Q., Mao P., and Tian X. 2013. Accumulation and Tolerance Characteristics of Zinc in Agropyron cristatum Plants Exposed to Zinc-Contaminated Soil. Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 3: 298–301.
46- Michael T.M., Rod L.B., John R.C., and Barker D. 2000. Pinitol accumulation in mature leaves of white clover in response to a water deficit. Environmental and Experimental Botany 43: 11-18.
47- Mohamed A., Shahba S., Alshammary F., and Mohamed S.A. 2012 .Effects of Salinity on
Seashore Paspalum Cultivars at Diff erent Mowing Heights. Crop Science 52: 1358–1370.
48- Mohammadi R., Haghparast R. Aghaee-Sarbarze M., and Abdollahi A.V. 2006. An evaluation of drought tolerance in advanced durum wheat genotypes based onphysiologic characteristics and other related indices. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 37: 561-567.
49- Mohammadi F., Kavousi H.R., and Mansouri A. 2019. Effects of salt stress on physio-biochemical characters and gene expressions in halophyte grass Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth. M. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 41: 143.
50- Morris K.N. 2002. A guide to NTEP turfgrass rating. National Turfgrass Evaluation Program 11: 30-39.
51- Ochoa V., Madrid E., Said M., Rubiales D., and Cabrera A. 2015. Molecular and cytogenetic characterization of a common wheat-Agropyron cristatum chromosome translocation conferring resistance to leaf rust. Euphytica 201: 89–95.
52- Pessarakli M. 2008. Handbook of turfgrass management and physiology. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.
53- Pessarakli M., and Kopec D.M. 2008. Comparing growth responses of selected cool-season turfgrasses under salinity and drought stresses. Acta Horticulturae 783: 169-174.
54- Poss J.A., Russell W.B., Bonos S.A., and Grieve C.M. 2010. Salt tolerance and canopy reflectance of Kentucky bluegrass cultivars. Hortscience 45: 952–960.
55- Qian Y. 1996. Irrigation frequency affects zoysiagrass rooting and plant water status. HortScience 31: 234–237.
56- Qian Y.L., and Fry J.d. 1996. Irrigation frequency affects zoysia grass rooting and plant water status. HortScience. 31: 234-237.
57- Robins J.G., and Waldron B.L. 2007. Potential for the improvement of turf quality in crested wheatgrass for low-maintenance conditions. Hortscience 42(7): 1526-1529.
58- Robins J.G., Waldron B.L., Cook D.W., Jensen K.B., and Asay K.H. 2006. Evaluation of crested wheatgrass managed as turfgrass. Online. Applied Turfgrass Science. doi: 10.1094/ATS-2006-0523-01-RS.
59- Roohollahi I., Kafi M., and Naderi R. 2010. Drought reaction and rooting characteristics in response to plant growth regulators on Poa pratensis cv. Barimpala. he Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment 8: 285-288.
60- Samar Raza M.A., Saleem F., Khan I.H., Jamil M., Ijaz M., and Khan M.A. 2012. Evaluating the drought stress tolerance efficiency of wheat (Triticum aestivum I.) cultivars. Russian Journal of Agricultural and Socio-economic Sciences 12: 41-46.
61- Samieiani E., Ansari H., Azizi M., Hashemi-Nia S.M., and Salahvarzi Y. 2013. Effects of drought stress on some biochemical indices of four groundcovers (Lolium perenne, Potentilla spp., Trifolium repens and Frankenia spp.) with potential usage in landscape. Journal of Science and Technology of Greenhouse Culture 4: 101-110.
62- Sarmast M.K., Salehi H., and Niazi A. 2015. Biochemical differences underlie varying drought tolerance in four Festuca arundinacea Schreb. Genotypes subjected to short water scarcity. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 37: 1-13.
63- Shahba M.A., Alshammary S.F., and Abbas M.S. 2012. Effects of salinity on seashore paspalum cultivars at different mowing heights. Crop Science 52: 1358–1370.
64- Shan C., He F., Xu G., Han R., and Liang Z. 2012. Nitric oxide is involved in the regulation of ascorbate and glutathione metabolism in Agropyron cristatum leaves under water stress. Biologia Plantarum 56: 187-191.
65- Su K., Moss J.Q., Zhang G., and Wu Y. 2013. Bermudagrass Drought Tolerance Associated with Dehydrin Protein Expression during Drought Stress. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 138(4): 277–282.
66- Tan S., Dong F., Yang Y., Zeng Q., Chen B., and Jiang L. 2017. Effects of waterlogging and cadmium on ecophysiological responses and metal bio-accumulation in Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon). Environmental Earth Sciences 76: 719.
67- Tatari M., Fotouhi Ghazvini R., Etemadi N., Ahadi A.M., and Mousavi A. 2013. Study of some physiological responses in three species of turfgrass in drought stress conditions. International Journal of Plant Production 20: 63-87.
68- Tatari M., Ghazvini F.R., Etemadi N., Ahadi A.M., and Mousavi A. 2012. Analysis of Antioxidant enzymes activity, lipid peroxidation and proline content of Agropyron desertorum under drought stress. South Western Journal of Horticulture, Biology and Environment 3: 9-24.
69- Wang Z., Huang B., and Xu Q. 2003. Genotypic variation in abscisic acid accumulation, water relations, and gas exchange for Kentucky bluegrass exposed to drought stress. HortScience 128: 349-355.
70- Watkins E., Fei S., Gardner D., Stier J., Bughrara S., Li D., Bigelow C., Schleicher L., Horgan B., and Diesburg K. 2011. Low-input turfgrass species for the north central United States. Online. Applied Turfgrass Science.
71- Watkins E., Fei S., Gardner D., Stier J., Bughrara S., Li D., Bigelow C., Schleicher L., Horgan B., and Diesburg K. 2011. Low-input turfgrass species for the north central United States. Online. Applied Turfgrass Science. doi: 10.1094/ATS-2011-0126-02-RS.
72- Weaver J.E., and Zink E. 1946. Length of Life of Roots of Ten Species of Perennial Range and Pasture Grasses. Agronomy & Horticulture. Faculty Publications. Paper 500.
73- Yang Z., Yu J., Merewitz E., and Huang B. 2012. Differential Effects of Abscisic Acid and Glycine Betaine on Physiological Responses to Drought and Salinity Stress for Two Perennial Grass Species. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 137: 96–106.
74- Yin X., Zhang C., Song X., and Jiang Y. 2017. Interactive short-term effects of waterlogging and salinity stress on growth and carbohydrate, lipid peroxidation, and nutrients in two perennial ryegrass cultivars. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 142: 110–118
75- Yin D., Zhang J., Jing R., Qu Q., Guan H., Zhang L., and Dong L. 2018. Effect of salinity on ion homeostasis in three halophyte species, Limonium bicolor, Vitex trifolia Linn. var. simplicifolia Cham and Apocynaceae venetum. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 40:40
76- Zandalinas S.I., Mittler R., Balfago´n D., Arbona V., Go´mez Cadenas A. 2018. Plant adaptations to the combination of drought and high temperatures. Physiologia Plantarum 162(1): 2-12.
77- Zhou L., Shi P., and Peng Y. 2013. Improved drought tolerance through drought preconditioning associated with changes in antioxidant enzyme activities, gene expression and osmoregulatory solutes accumulation in White clover (Trifolium repens L.). Plant Omics Journal 6: 481-489.
ارجاع به مقاله
شیخ محمدیم. ح., اعتمادین. ا., نیکبختع., عربم., & مجیدیم. م. (2019). بررسی پاسخ‌های مورفوفیزیولوژیک توده‌های بومی علف گندمي تاجدار (Agropyron cristatum L.) در شرایط تنش خشکی و شوری . علوم باغبانی, 33(3), 363-375. https://doi.org/10.22067/jhorts4.v33i3.61364
نوع مقاله
علمی - پژوهشی