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عیسی کرامتلو سعید نواب پور خلیل زینلی نژاد الهه توکل سید مهدی حسینی مزینانی

چکیده

دمای پایین از تنش‌های عمده غیر زیستی است که سبب آسیب فراوان به درختان میوه می شود. آسیب سرما به درختان همیشه سبز مانند زیتون، بیشتر از بقیه گیاهان است. به علت همیشه سبز بودن زیتون، تنش سرما اغلب در اواخر پاییز، زمستان و اوایل فصل بهار علاوه بر خسارت به محصول زیتون، در رقم های روغنی دیررس، باعث خشکیدگی شاخساره سال جاری و شاخه های چند ساله می شود. این مطالعه در سال 1395 و 1396 با هدف ارزیابی خسارت یخ زدگی از دیدگاه باغبانی و شناسایی تک درختان متحمل به تنش یخ زدگی زودرس پاییزه پس از وقوع یخبندان آذر ماه 1395در باغات زیتون شرق استان گلستان انجام شد. علائم تنش یخ زدگی در درختان زیتون با توجه به نوع رقم و ژنوتیپ، شامل خشکیدگی و ریزش برگ، ترکیدگی شاخه های یک تا چند ساله، تیرگی رنگ پوست و چوب، خروج محتویات میوه و تغییر رنگ میوه بلافاصله بعد از تنش یخ زدگی تا هفت ماه بعد از تنش مطالعه شد. در ابتدا 218 تک درخت زیتون که نسبت به سرما از خود تحمل نشان داده بودند شناسایی و مجددا یک ماه، چهار ماه و هفت ماه بعد از تنش مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. در نهایت، تعداد 58 اصله درخت زیتون متحمل به سرما در باغات مختلف شناسایی و از نظر صفات مکانی، عملکردی و مورفولوژیک بررسی شدند. برخی از این درختان در مناطق مختلف، الگوهای رفتاری مشابهی نسبت به تنش یخ زدگی نشان دادند و با تحقیقات تکمیلی می توان امیدوار بود از بین درختان شناسایی شده، ارقام متحمل به سرما با عملکرد قابل قبول معرفی گردد.

جزئیات مقاله

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ارجاع به مقاله
کرامتلوع., نواب پورس., زینلی نژادخ., توکلا., & حسینی مزینانیس. م. (2019). ارزیابی مورفولوژیک و گزینش تک درختان متحمل به تنش یخ زدگی در باغات زیتون استان گلستان. علوم باغبانی, 33(2), 287-299. https://doi.org/10.22067/jhorts4.v0i0.74100
نوع مقاله
علمی - پژوهشی