##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

علی رضا لادن مقدم

چکیده

زغال­های زیستی شکلی از مواد هستند که در شرایط خاص سوزانده شده و به عنوان مواد آلی به خاک اضافه می­شوند و سبب افزایش مواد آلی خاک و کاهش مخاطرات زیست محیطی می­شوند. هدف از انجام این پژوهش بررسی اثر دو نوع زغال زیستی حاصل از کلش گندم و برنج بر برخی ویژگی­های گیاه توت­فرنگی رقم کردستان است. این پژوهش به صورت فاکتوریل در غالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در استان گلستان به اجرا در آمده است. تیمارهای این مطالعه شامل سطوح 5/1 و 3 درصد دو نوع پسماند کاه و کلش گندم و برنج به همراه سه سطح کود شیمیایی نیتروژنه و فسفاته به صورت محلول شامل صفر، 50 و 70 درصد نیاز طبیعی گیاه می­باشد. در این پژوهش عملکرد، وزن تر گیاه، تعداد میوه با روش­های معمول اندازه­گیری شد. مقدار عناصر نیتروژن، فسفر، پتاسیم و آهن در دو بخش میوه و اندام­های هوایی اندازه­گیری شده است. نتایج نشان دادکه بیشترین عملکرد میوه در تیمار 70 درصد نیاز کودی و سه درصد زغال زیستی کاه و کلش گندم (3/83 گرم در بوته) به دست آمده است. در تیمار 70 درصد نیاز کودی در صورت استفاده از زغال زیستی کاه و کلش گندم و برنج به ترتیب میزان نیتروژن میوه 7/0 و 5/0 گرم در صد گرم ماده خشک افزایش یافت. مطابق نتایج این آزمایش استفاده از هر دو نوع زغال زیستی اثرات بسیار مفیدی بر روی گیاه توت فرنگی دارد و زغال زیستی به دست آمده از کاه و کلش گندم نسبت به برنج دارای اثرات بهتری بروی کیفیت و کمیت توت فرنگی می­باشد.

جزئیات مقاله

کلمات کلیدی

آتشکافت, آهن, عملکرد, نیتروژن, رقم کردستان

مراجع
1- Akça M.O., and Namli A. 2015. Effects of poultry litter Biochar on soil enzyme activities and tomato, pepper and lettuce plants growth. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 4(3): 203-210.
2- Alburquerque J.A., Salazar P., Barrón V., Torrent J., del Campillo M.D.C., Gallardo A., and Villar R. 2013. Enhanced wheat yield by biochar addition under different mineral fertilization levels. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 33(3): 475-484. ‏
3- Asgari Marjanlu A., Mostofi Y., Shoeibi S., and Maghoumi M. 2009. Effect of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Essential oil on Gray Mold Control and Postharvest Quality of Strawberry (cv. Selva). Journal of Medicinal Plants 4(29): 131-139. (In Persian with English abstract)
4- Athar H., and Ashraf M. 2005. Photosynthesis under drought stress. PP. 795-810. In: Pessarakli M. (Ed.), Handbook of Photosynthesis, Second Ed., CRC Press, New York.
5- Atkinson C.J., Fitzgerald J.D., and Hipps N.A. 2010. Potential mechanisms for achieving agricultural benefits from biochar application to temperate soils: A review. Plant Soil 337: 1–18.
6- Barben S.A., Nichols B.A., Hopkins B.G., Jolley V.D., Ellsworth J.W., and Webb B.L. 2007. Phosphorus andzinc interactions in potato. Western Nutrient Management Conference 219-223.
7- Behnamian M., and Messiah S. 2002. Strawberry. Sotoudeh Publishing House, 120 pages, (In Persian with English abstract).
8- Bose U.S., and Tripath S.K. 1996. Effect of micronutrients on growth, yield and quality of tomato cv. Pusa Ruby. Crop Research 12: 61-64.
9- Chan K.Y., Van Zwieten L., Meszaros I., Downie A., and Joseph S. 2007. Agronomicvalues of greenwastebiochar as a soil amendment. Australian Journal of Soil Research 45: 629-634.
10- Chen J.P., and Lin M. 2001. Equilibrium and kinetics of metal ion adsorption onto a commercial H-type granularactivated carbon: Experimental and modeling studies. Water Research 35: 2385–2394.
11- Davis T.M., Denoyes-Rothan B., and Lereeteau-kohler E. 2007. Strawberry (chapter 8). In Kole C. (Ed). Genome plants, volume 4, Fruits and nuts 189-204.
12- Deenik J.L., McClellan T., Uehara G., Antal M.J., and Campbell S. 2010. Charcoal volatile matter content influences plant growth and soil nitrogen transformations. Soil Science Society of America Journal 74(4): 1259-1270. ‏
13- Deluca T.H., MacKenzie M.D., and Gundale M.J. 2009. Biochar Effects on Soil Nutrient Transformations. In: Lehmann, J. Joseph, S. (Eds.), Biochar for Environmental Management. Science and technology 56: 251–270.
14- Downie A., Crosky A., and Munroe P. 2009. Physical properties of biochar. In: J. Lehmann S. Joseph (Eds.), Biochar for Environmental Management: Science and Technology. Earthscan, London 13-32.
15- Fallah Tolekolaei S., Bahmanyar M.A., Sadeghzadeh F., and Emadi S.M. 2016. Effects of municipal solid waste compost and two boichar type's application on the concentration of some nutrients in rice (Oryza sativa). Journal of Soil Management and Sustainable Production 6(1): 145-158. (In Persian with English abstract)
16- Fellet G., Marchiol L., Delle Vedove G., and Peressotti A. 2011. Application of biochar on mine tailings: effects and perspectives for land reclamation. Chemosphere 83(9): 1262-1267. ‏
17- Fowles M. 2007. Black carbon sequestration as an alternative to bioenergy. Biomass & Bioenergy 31: 426–432.
18- Ganjehi B., and Golchin A. 2012. The effect of different levels of N, K and Mg on yield and growth indices of strawberry in hydroponic culture. Journal of Science and Technology of Greenhouse Culture 2(4):71-81. (In Persian with English abstract)
19- Goyal H.B., Seal D., and Saxena R.C. 2008. Bio-fuels from thermochemical conversion of renewable resources: a review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12(2): 504-517.
20- Gruda N. 2005. Impact of environmental factors on product quality of greenhouse vegetables for fresh consumption. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 24: 227-274.
21- Haefele S.M., Konboon Y., Wongboon W., Amarante S., Maarifat A.A., and Pfeiffer E.M. 2011. Effects and fate of biochar from rice residues in rice-based systems. Field Crops Research 121(3): 430-40.
22- Hejazizadeh A., Gholamalizadeh Ahangar A., and Ghorbani M. 2016. Effect of Biochar on Lead and Cadmium Uptake from Applied Paper Factory Sewage Sludge by Sunflower (Heliantus annus L.). Water and Soil Science 26(1-2): 259-271. (In Persian with English abstract)
23- Hernandez T., Moral R., Prez-Espinosa A., Moreno-Caselles A., Perez Murica M.D., and Garcia C. 2002. Nitrogen mineralization potential in a calcareous soil amended with sewage sludge. Bioresource Technology 83: 213-219.
24- Hossain M.K., Strezov V., Chan K.Y., and Nelson P.F. 2010. Agronomic properties of wastewater sludge biochar and bioavailability of metals in production of cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Chemosphere 78(9): 1167-1171.
25- Hunt J.F., Ohno T., He Z., Honeycutt C.W., and Dail D.B. 2007. Inhibition of phosphorus sorption to goethite, gibbsite, and kaolin by fresh and decomposed organic matter, Biology and fertility of soils 44(2): 277-288.
26- Izaurralde R., Williams C.J.R., Post W.M., and Thomson A.M. 2007. Long-term modeling of soil C erosion and sequestration at the small watershed scale. Climatic Change 80 (1-2): 73-90.
27- Jiang T.Y., Jiang J., Xu R.K., and Li Z. 2012. Adsorption of Pb (II) on variable charge soils amended with rice-straw derived biochar. Chemosphere 89(3): 249-256.‏
28- Jones J.R., Wolf B., and Mills H.A. 1991. Plant Analysis Handbook. Micro-Macro Publishing, Athens, GA, pp. 1-25.
29- Khaldbarin B., and Islam zadeh T. 2005. Excellent plant nutrition (translation). Shiraz University Press, 259 pages. (In Persian with English abstract)
30- Knicker H. 2007. How does fire affect the nature and stability of soil organic nitrogen and carbon? A review. Biogeochemistry 85(1): 91-118. ‏
31- Kosegarten H.G., Wilson H., and Esch A. 1998. The effect of nitrate nutrition on iron cholorosis and leaf growth in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). European Journal of Agronomy 8: 283-292.
32- Laird D., Fleming P., Davis D., Horton R., Wang B., and Karlen D. 2010. Impact of biochar amendments on the quality of a typical midwestern agricultural soil. Geoderma 158(3–4): 443–449.
33- Lehmann J. 2007. Bio-energy in the black. Germany front Ecological Environmental 5: 381-387.
34- Lehmann J., and Joseph S. 2009. Biochar for environmental management. Science and Technology 77-79.
35- Lehmann J., daSilva J.P., Steiner C., Nehls T., Zech W., and Glaser B. 2003. Nutrient availability and leaching in an archaeological Anthrosol and a Ferralsol of the Central Amazon basin: fertilizer. Manure and charcoal amendments. Plant Soil 249: 343-357.
36- Lian F., Huang F., Chen W., Xing B., and Zhu L. 2011. Sorption of apolar and polar organic contaminants by waste tire rubber and its chars in single- and bi-solute systems. Environmental Pollution 159: 850-857.
37- Lindsay W.L., and Norwell W.A. 1960. Development of a DTPA micronutrient soil test. Agronomy Abstracts 1969 :84
38- Major J., Rondon M., Molina D., Riha S.J., and Lehmann J. 2010. Maize yield and nutrition during 4 years after biochar application to a Colombian savanna oxisol. Plant and Soil 333(1-2): 117-128. ‏
39- Makarian H. and Shahqali H. 2015. Effect of organic and biological fertilizers on growth and yield of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) And colonization of bacteria in soil. Journal of Horticultural Science (Agricultural Sciences and Technology) 29(2): 185-195. (In Persian with English abstract)
40- Manrique L.A. 1993. Greenhouse crops: A review. Journal of Plant Nutrition 16(12): 2411-2477. ‏
41- Marschener H. 1995. Mineral nutrition of higher plant. Second Academic Press London.
42- Mashayekhi P., and Tatari M. 2016. Effect of various concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on some quantitative and qualitative properties Strawberries in hydroponic culture. Soil Science Journal (Soil and Water Science) 30(4): 391-402. (In Persian with English abstract)
43- Mengel K., and Arneke W.W. 1982. Effect of potassium on the water potential, the pressure potential, the osmotic potential and cell elongation in leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris. Plant Physiology 54: 402-408.
44- Miri S.M., Hosseini M., Souri M.K., and Abaspour S. 2016. Effect of Potassium Nitrate and Phenyl Phthalamic Acid on Some of Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Strawberry ‘Gaviota’. Journal of Plant Productions 39(4): 43-52. (In Persian with English abstract)
45- Morales M.M., Comerford N., Guerrini I.A., Falcao N.P.S., and Reeves J.B. 2013. Sorption and desorption of phosphate on biochar and biochar–soil mixtures. Soil Use Management 29: 306–314.
46- Mukherjee A., and Zimmerman A.R. 2013. Organic carbon and nutrient release from a range of laboratory-produced biochars and biochar–soil mixtures. Geoderma 193–194(0): 122-30.
47- Mukherjee A., Hamdan R., Cooper W.T., and Zimmerman A.R.A. 2013. Chemical comparison of freshly-produced and field-aged biochars and biochar-amended soils. Chemosphere. Solid Earth Discuss 6: 731-760.
48- Murphy P.N.C., and Stevens R.J. 2010. Lime and gypsum as source measures to decrease phosphorus loss from soils to water. Water Air Soil Pollution 212: 101–111.
49- Namgay T., Singh B., and Singh B.P. 2010. Influence of biochar application to soil on the availability of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn to maize (Zea mays L.). Soil Research 48(7): 638-647. ‏
50- Neeson R. 2004. Organic processing tomato production. Agfact H8.3.6, first edition.
51- Novak J.M., Busscher W.J., Laird D.L., Ahmedna M., Watts D.W., and Niandou M.A.S. 2009. Impact of biochar amendment on fertility of a southeastern coastal Plain soil. Soil Science 174: 105-112.
52- Romheld V., and Kirkby E.A. 2010. Research on potassium in agriculture: Needs and prospects. Plant Soil 335: 155-180.
53- Rondon M.A., Lehmann J., Ramírez J., and Hurtado M. 2007. Biological nitrogen fixation by common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) increases with bio-char additions. Biology and fertility of soils, 43(6): 699-708. ‏
54- Rostamian R., Heidarpour M., Mousavi S., and Afyuni M. 2015. Application of Rice Husk Biochar to Desalinate Irrigation Water. JWSS 19(71): 21-30. (In Persian with English abstract)
55- Skjemstad J.O., Clarke P., Taylor J.A., Oades J.M., and McClure S.G. 1996. The chemistry and nature of protected carbon in soil. Australian Journal of Soil Research 34: 251–271.
56- Sohi S.P., Krull E., Lopez-Capel E., and Bol R.A. 2010. Review of biochar and its use and function in soil. In: Sparks, D.L. (Ed.), Advances in Agronomy 105: 47-82.
57- Steiner C., Glaser B., Teixeira W.G., Lehmann J., Blum W.E.H., and Zech W. 2008. Nitrogen retention and plant uptake on a highly weathered central Amazonian Ferralsolamended with compost and charcoal. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 171: 893-899.
58- Sujana I.P., Lanya I., Subadiyasa I.N.N., and Suarna I.W. 2014. The effect of dose biochar and organic matters on soil characteristic and corn plants growth on the land degraded by garment liquid waste. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare 4(5): 77-88.
59- Tang J., Zhu W., Kookana R., and Katayama A. 2013. Characteristics of biochar and its application in remediation of contaminated soil. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 116(6): 653-659.
60- Vaccari F.P., Maienza A., Miglietta F., Baronti S., Di Lonardo S., Giagnoni L., and Valboa G. 2015. Biochar stimulates plant growth but not fruit yield of processing tomato in a fertile soil. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 207: 163-170.
61- vanZwieten L., Kimber S., Downie A., Joseph F., Chan K.Y., Cowie A., Wainberg R., and Morris S. 2007. Paper mill char: benefits for soil health and plant production. Proceedings, International Agrichar Initiative Conference. 30th April - 2nd May 2007, Terrigal, Australia.
62- Westerman R.E.L. 1990. Soil testing and plant analysis. Soil Science Society of America Journal. Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
63- William K., and Qureshi R.A. 2015. Evaluation of Biochar as Fertilizer for the Growth of Some Seasonal Vegetables. Journal of Bioresource Management 2(1): 1.
64- Woolf D., Amonette J.E., Street-Perrott F.A., Lehmann J., and Joseph S. 2010. Sustainable biochar to mitigate global climate change. Nat. Commun 1, 1-9.
65- Xu G., Shao H.B., and Sun J.N. 2013. What is more important for enhancing nutrient bioavailability with biochar application into a sandy soil: direct or indirect mechanism Ecol. Ecological Engineering 52: 119–124.
66- Yao Y., Gao B., Inyang M., Zimmerman A.R., and Cao X. 2011. Biochar derived from anaerobically digestedugar beet tailings: Characterization and phosphate removal potential. Bioresource Technology 102: 6273-6278.
67- Yavari S., Eshghi S., Tafazoli E., and Yavari S. 2008. Effects of various organic substrates and nutrient solution on productivity and fruit quality of strawberry “Selva” (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.). Journal of Fruit and Ornamental Plant Research 16: 167-178.
68- Yilangai R.M., Manu A.S., Pineau W., Mailumo S.S., and Okeke-Agulu K.I. 2014. The effect of biochar and crop veil on growth and yield of Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill) in Jos, North central Nigeria. Current agriculture Research Journal 2(1): 37-42.
69- Yuan J.H., Xua R.K., and Zhang H. 2011. The forms of alkalis in the biochar produced from crop residues atdifferent temperatures. Bioresource Technology 102: 3488-3497.
70- Zhai L., CaiJi Z., Liu J., Wang H., Ren T., Gai X., and Liu H. 2015. Short-term effects of maize residue biochar on phosphorus availability in two soils with different phosphorus sorption capacities. Biology and Fertility of Soils 51(1): 113-122.
ارجاع به مقاله
لادن مقدمع. ر. (2019). بررسی اثر دو نوع زغال زیستی پوشال برنج و کلش گندم بر برخی ویژگی¬های گیاه توت¬فرنگی. علوم باغبانی, 34(1), 75-89. https://doi.org/10.22067/jhorts4.v34i1.79937
نوع مقاله
علمی - پژوهشی