Evaluation of genetic diversity of some German chamomile populations (Matricaria chamomilla L. ) using some morphological and agronomical characteristics

Document Type : Research Article



Genetic diversity of German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) populations in Iran was evaluated using morphological, agronomical and phonological characteristics and compared with three cultivars from Germany, Hungary and Iran. In this experiment, statistical design of RCBD with three replications was used, sixteen quantitative traits were measured such as yield, flower number per plant, anthodium diameter, receptacle diameter, 100 flower weight, essential oil percent, pollen diameter, stomata length, leaf length, leaf width, seed weight, vegetative period, height, generative period dry flower percent and ligulae flower number in 26 populations. Results of variance analysis showed that populations were significantly different for all traits except stomata length. Result of simple correlation analysis showed significant positive and negative correlation among many traits. Vegetative period duration showed significant negative correlation with most of traits. PCA analysis placed 16 traits in three factors that covered 78.89 percent of variance. The first factor, that in fact is Yield and yield components factor, covered 58.46 percent of variance included main traits such as height, yield, flower number per plant, anthodium diameter, receptacle diameter, 100 flower weight, 1000 seed weight and ligulae flower number. Cluster analysis classified populations to 3 main groups and 2 independent populations. Groups mainly have differences in yield and yield components. In this investigation many native populations were similar or better than cultivars, having cultivation potential or breeding programs.

Key words: Genetic diversity, German chamomile, Matricaria chamomilla, morphological markers