بررسی اثر ترکیبات ضدتعرق طبیعی بر برخی از صفات فیزیولوژیکی و بیولوژیکی گیاه دارویی ریحان (Ocimum basilicum) تحت شرایط تنش خشکی

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی فارس

چکیده

به منظور بررسی تاثیر تنش خشکی و کاربرد ترکیبات ضدتعرق بر گیاه دارویی ریحان، آزمایش فاکتوریلی شامل 3 سطح آبیاری (شاهد- 500، تنش متوسط- 375 و تنش شدید- 250 میلی‌لیتر آبیاری در 24 ساعت) و 3 ترکیب ضدتعرق کیتوزان، موسیلاژ اسفرزه و موسیلاژ بارهنگ هر کدام در 3 سطح (5/0، 1 و 5/1 درصد وزن خشک به حجم حلال) با 3 تکرار و بر پایه طرح کاملاً تصادفی انجام پذیرفت. در این تحقیق صفاتی از قبیل، میزان فتوسنتز، تعرق روزنه‌ای، هدایت ‌روزنه‌ای، دی‌اکسید‌کربن اتاقک ‌روزنه، محتوای کلروفیل و کاروتنوئید‌ و دمای سطح برگ اندازه‌گیری شد. نتایج نشان داد که اثر آبیاری و مواد ضدتعرق در صفات مورد اندازه‌گیری معنی‌دار بودند (01/0P≤ و 05/0P≤). بیشترین میزان صفات مورد اندازه‌گیری در سطح اول آبیاری و سطوح متفاوتی از ترکیبات ضدتعرق مشاهده شد. کلیه ترکیبات ضدتعرق، میزان تعرق را بطور معنی‌داری کاهش دادند و این کاهش در غلظت‌های بالاتر بیشتر بود. به‌طوری‌که ترکیب کیتوزان در سطوح 5/1 و 1 درصد نسبت به نمونه شاهد، میزان تعرق را تا دو برابر کاهش داد. در مورد فتوسنتز نیز تیمار 5/0 و 1 درصد کیتوزان توانستند تا 30 درصد میزان فتوسنتز را نسبت به شاهد افزایش دهند. هم‌چنین مشخص شد که با کاربرد ترکیبات ضدتعرق در شرایط آبیاری محدود میزان ماده خشک افزایش یافت. ترکیبات ضدتعرق درصد و عملکرد اسانس را نسبت به شاهد کاهش دادند. با توجه به نتایج به دست آمده در این آزمایش می‌توان بیان نمود که ترکیبات ضدتعرق با منشا طبیعی، ترکیباتی ایمن، ارزان و زیست تجزیه‌پذیر بوده و جایگزین مناسبی برای ترکیبات ضدتعرق شیمیایی متداول می‌باشند، اما تجاری نمودن این ترکیبات نیاز به آزمایشات تکمیلی دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Natural Antitranspirant Compounds on Physiological and Biological Properties of Basil (Ocimum basilicum) under Water Stress Condition

نویسندگان [English]

  • R. Ameri 1
  • M. Azizi 1
  • A. Tehranifar 1
  • V. Roshan Sarvestani 2
1 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
2 Research Center for Agriculture and Natural Resources of Fars Province
چکیده [English]

In order to study the effect of natural antitranspirant compound and water stress on growth, development and essential oil content of Ocimumbasilicum a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replicates was conducted. 3 levels of water stress (500 as control, 375 and 250 ml/day) and 3 antitranspirant compound (chitosan, plantago mucilage and psyllium mucilage) in 3 levels of 0.5, 1 and 1.5% (m/v) and applied during the plant growth. Photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance, stomatal chamber CO2, leaf temperature, fresh and dry weight of herb, essential oil percentage and content were measured. The results showed that water stress and antitranspirant application had a significant effect on all measured traits (P≤0.05 and P≤0.01). The highest values of these traits were observed in control for water stress treatment and different levels of antitranspirant compounds. Transpiration levels from leaf were significantly decreased by antitranspirant compounds application. Chitosan (1 and 1.5%) decreased transpiration by 200% over control. Photosynthesis was also increased up to 30% by chitosan treatment (0.5 and 1) in comparison to control.Also, antitranspirant compounds increasing dry matter yield in water stress condition but reducing essential oil % and yield in comparison with control. In general, according to the result of this experiment, antitranspirant compounds with natural origin are safe, biodegradable, easy available, low cost and alternatives which can be used in substitution with common chemical types.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • basil
  • Antitranspirant
  • Water stress
  • Chitosan
  • Plantago mucilage
  • Psyllium mucilage
  • Photosynthesis
  • Essential oil
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