اثر محلول پاشی کود آمینول فورته بر واکنش های فیزیولوژیکی و بیوشیمیایی انار رقم نادری در شرایط تنش خشکی

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه زنجان

چکیده

به منظور بررسی محلول پاشی کود آمینواسیددار آمینول فورته بر واکنش های فیزیولوژیکی و بیوشیمیایی بر انار رقم نادری در شرایط تنش خشکی، آزمایشی به صورت اسپلیت پلات در قالب طرح پایه بلوک های کامل تصادفی در مزرعه آب شیرین واقع در ‎40‎ کیلومتری جاده قدیم قم-کاشان در سال 1390 اجرا شد. تیمار آبیاری در سه سطح (100درصد نیاز آبی، 75درصد نیاز آبی و 50 درصد نیاز آبی) و تیمار کود آمینواسیددار آمینول فورته در چهار سطح (0، 2، 3 و 4 میلی لیتر در لیتر) انجام شد. محلول پاشی در چهار مرحله (قبل از باز شدن گل ها، بعد از تشکیل میوه، مرحله رشد سریع و دو هفته قبل از برداشت) انجام شد. در پایان آزمایش شاخص کلروفیل، قندهای محلول، قندهای نامحلول، پرولین، دمای کانوپی و هدایت روزنه ای اندازه گیری شد. نتایج نشان داد با افزایش سطح کود آمینول فورته از 0 به 4 میلی لیتر در لیتر میزان قندهای محلول، پرولین و هدایت روزنه ای به طور معنی داری افزایش یافتند در حالیکه قندهای نامحلول و شاخص کلروفیل کاهش یافت. تنش خشکی میزان قندهای محلول، شاخص کلروفیل، دمای کانوپی و پرولین را افزایش داد ولی قندهای نامحلول، هدایت روزنه ای را کاهش داد. بر اساس نتایج بدست آمده می توان بیان کرد محلول پاشی کود آمینواسیددار آمینول فورته توانست به مقدار قابل توجهی آثار مخرب تنش خشکی را کاهش داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Aminol-Forte Fertilizer Spraying on Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Pomegranate cv. Naderi under Drought Stress Conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • S. Hasanzadeh
  • F. Habibi
  • M.E. Amiri
University of Zanjan
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) belongs to the Punicaceae family and grows in subtropical and Mediterranean climates. Nowadays the widespread usage of inorganic fertilizers has increased and so people concern about their health. The use of organic fertilizer instead of inorganic fertilizers is one of the methods of preserving health. Pomegranate is one of the most important products of Iran. This fruit plant is cultivated in some regions in arid and semi-arid areas. Due to the long growing season of pomegranate, droughtstress is one of the main limiting factors in the development of pomegranate orchards in Iran. Utilization of amino acids can help to increase efficiency and improve the quality of the fruit under environmental stress. Thus, this study aims to findany possibility to increase the production and quality of the fruit during the drought. The goalof this study was to study the effect of organic Aminol-Forte fertilizer on physiological and biochemical responses of pomegranate cv. Naderi under drought stress conditions.
Materials and Methods: This research was carried out in AbShirin field located on the old road 40 km from Qom-Kashan during 2011. Asplit plot experiment based on randomized complete block design was conducted with two factors, irrigation treatment in three levels (100% required water, 75% required water and 50% required water) and Aminol-Forte fertilizer treatment in four levels (0, 2, 3 and 4 ml/l). Spraying was conducted in four stages (pre-anthesis, after fruit set, fruit growth andtwo weeks per-harvest). In the end of the experiment, chlorophyll index, soluble sugars, insoluble sugars, proline, canopy degree and stomatal conductance were measured. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 17 program. Means were separated according to the Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT) at 0.01 level of probability.
Results and Discussion: Analysis of variance of Aminol-forte fertilizer spraying on physiological and biochemical responses of pomegranate cv. Naderi under drought stress conditions showed that between irrigation treatment for chlorophyll index, proline and stomatal conductance were significant at 1% level of probability, and at 5% level of probability soluble sugarand insoluble sugar and canopy degree were significant. Fertilizer treatment at 1% level of probability was significant for proline and at 5% level of probability was significant for soluble sugars. Interaction was significant for soluble sugars, proline and canopy degree. Means showed that by increasing fertilizer level, soluble sugars content, proline and stomatal conductance significantly increased insoluble sugars and chlorophyll index decreased insignificantly. By decreasing irrigation levels, chlorophyll index, soluble sugars and proline significantly increased, meanwhile insoluble sugars and stomatal conductance significantly decreased. The highest chlorophyll index (65.44 SPAD) and the lowest chlorophyll index (56.48 SPAD) were obtained in 75% required water with 2 ml/l of fertilizer level and 100% required water with 3 ml/l of fertilizer level, respectively. The highest soluble sugars (14.94 mg/g) and the lowest soluble sugars (11.64 mg/l) were obtained in 50% required water with 0 ml/l of fertilizer level and 100% required water 2 ml/l of fertilizer level, respectively. The highest insoluble sugars (9.99 mg/g) and the lowest insoluble sugars (6.82 mg/l) were measured in 100% required water with 3 ml/l of fertilizer level and 50% required water with 2 ml/l of fertilizer level, respectively. The highest proline content (2.51μmol/l) and the lowest proline content (1.05μmol/l) were obtained in 50% required water with 4 ml/l of fertilizer level and 100% required water with 0 ml/l of fertilizer level, respectively. The highest canopy degree (-7.31˚c) and the lowest canopy degree (-9.38˚c) were measured in 50% required water with 4 ml/l of fertilizer level and 100% required water with 4 ml/l of fertilizer level, respectively. The highest stomatal conductance (38.23 mmol/m2/s) and the lowest stomatal conductance (9.7 mmol/m2/s) were obtained in 50% required water with 2 ml/l of fertilizer level and 100% required water with 3 ml/l of fertilizer level, respectively.
Conclusion: By increasing the level of Aminol-Forte fertilizer from 0 to 4 ml/l, soluble sugars content, proline and stomatal conductance significantly increased meanwhile insoluble sugars and the chlorophyll index decreased. Drought stress increased soluble sugars content, chlorophyll index, canopy degree and proline but, insoluble sugars and stomatal conductance decreased. According obtained results, it can be said, spraying of Aminol-Forte fertilizer containing amino acid could significantly reduce the negative effects of drought stress. In this study, the best results in terms of stress and no stress were obtained in 3 and 4 ml/l of Aminol-Forte fertilizer.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Proline
  • Canopy degree
  • Chlorophyll index
  • Soluble sugars
  • stomatal conductance
1- Awad El-M.M., Abd El-Hameed A.M., and Shall Z.S. 2007. Effect of glycine, lysine and nitrogen fertilizer rates on growth, yield and chemical composition of potato. Agriculture Science, 32:8541-8551.
2- Bates L.S., Waldren R.P., and Teare, L.D. 1973. Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies. Plant and Soil. 39:205-208.
3- Davies D.D. 1982. Physiological aspects of protein turnover. Encycl. Plant Physiol. New Series, 14 A (Nucleic acids and proteins: structure, biochemistry and physiology of proteins, Eds., Boulter, D. and B Partier, Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg and NewYork, pp:190-228.
4- El-Shabasi M.S., Mohamed S.M., and Mahfouz S.A. 2005. Effect of foliar spray with amino acids on growth, yield and chemical composition of garlic plants. The 6th Arabian Conference for Horticulture.
5- Farshi A.A. 1998. An estimate of water requirement of main field crops and orchards in Iran. Agriculture Education Press, Volume 2. 648 Pp. (in Persian)
6- Faten S., Abd El-Aal F.S., Shaheen A.M., Ahmed A.A., and Mahmoud A.R. 2010. Effect of Foliar Application of Urea and Amino Acids Mixtures as Antioxidants on Growth, Yield and Characteristics of Squash. Agriculture and Biological Sciences, 6:583-588.
7- Halilova H., and Yildiz N. 2009. Does climate change have an effect on proline accumulation in pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits. Scientific Research and Essays, 4:1543-1546.
8- Kafi M., Borzoei A., Salehi M., Kamandi A., and Masoumi A. 2010. Physiology of environmental stresses in plants. Jihad Press. Mashhad, 502 Pp. (in Persian)
9- Kamar M.E., and Omar A. 1987. Effect of nitrogen levels and spraying wih aminal-forte (amino acids salvation) on yield of cucumber and potatoes. Journal of Agricultural Science Mansoura University, 12:900- 907.
10- Karima M., Gamal EL-din M., and Abdel -Wahed M.S.A. 2005. Effect of some amino acids on growth and essential oil content of chamomile plant. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 3:376-380.
11- Khattab M.M., Shaban A.E., El-Shrief A.H., and El-Deen Mohamed A.S. 2012. Effect of humic acid and amino acids on pomegranate trees under deficit irrigation. I: Growth, Flowering and Fruiting. Horticultural Science and Ornamental Plants, 4:253-259.
12- Kochert G. 1978. Carbohydrate determination by the phenol sulfuric acid method In: Helebust J.A. & Craig, J.S. (ed.): Hand book of phycologia method: 56-97. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
13- Lawlor D.W., and Cornic G. 2002. Photosynthetic carbon assimilation and associated metabolism in relation to water deficits in higher plants. Journal of Plant Cell and Environment, 25:275-294.
14- Mansour M.M.F. 2000. Nitrogen containing compounds and adaptation of plants to salinity stress. Biologia Plantarium, 43:491–500.
15- Masojidek J., Trivedi S., Haishaw L., Alexiou A., and Hall DO. 1991. The synergistic effect of drought and light stresses in sorghum and pearl millet. Plant Physiology, 96:198-207.
16- Mercure E.M. 2007. The pomegranate: A new look at the fruit of paradise. Horticultural Science, 42:1088-1092.
17- Mohammad Zamani M., Rabiyei V., and Nejatian M.A. 2013. Effect of proline and glycine betaine application on some physiological characteristics in grapevine under drought stress. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Sciences, 43:393-401. (in Persian with English abstract)
18- Nahed G., Abdel Aziz A., Mazher A.M., and Farahat M.M. 2010. Response of vegetative growth and chemical constituents of Thuja orientalis L. plant to foliar application of different amino acids at Nubaria. Journal of American Science, 6:295-301.
19- Shehata S.A., Gharib A.A., E1-Mogy M.M., Abdel Gawad K.F., and Shalaby E.A. 2011. Influence of compost, amino and humic acids on the growth, yield and chemical parameters of strawberries. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 5:2304-2308.
20- Szabados L., and Savoure A. 2010. Proline: a multifunctional amino acid. Plant Science, 15:89-97.
21- Taiz L., and Zeiger, E. Plant physiology. 2002. 3rd ed. Sinauer, Sunderland.
22- Thomas J., Mandal A.K.A., Raj Kumar R., and Chordia A. 2009. Role of biologically active amino acid formulations on quality and crop productivity of tea (Camellia sp.). International Journal of Agricultural Researches, 4:228-236.
23- Velikova V., Yordanov I., and Edreva A. 2000. Oxidative stress and some antioxidant systems in acid rain-treated bean plants: protective role of exogenous polyamines. Journal of Plant Science, 151:59-66.
24- Yamada M., Morishita H., Urano K., Shiozaki N., Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K., Shinozaki K., and Yoshiba Y. 2005. Effects of free proline accumulation in petunias under drought stress. Journal of Experimental Botany, 56:1975-1981.
25- Zhang J., and Davies W.J. 1989. Abscisic acid produced in dehydrating roots may enable the plant to measure the water status of the soil. Plant, Cell and Environment, 12:73-81.
26- Zhang J., Yuncong1 Y., John Streeter G., and Ferree D.C. 2010. Influence of soil drought stress on photosynthesis, carbohydrates and the nitrogen and phosphorus absorbing different section of leaves and stem of Fugi/M.9EML, a young apple seedling. Journal of Biotechnology, 9:5320-5325.