بررسی اثر قطع آبیاری در مرحله گلدهی و محلولپاشی اسپرمیدین بر برخی خصوصیات کمی ‏و کیفی اکوتیپ‏های مختلف زیره سبز (Cuminum cyminum)

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان

چکیده

به منظور بررسی تاثیر قطع آبیاری در مرحله گلدهی و محلولپاشی توسط اسپرمیدین بر برخی صفات اکوتیپ‏های مختلف زیره سبز آزمایشی بصورت کرت‏های دوبار خرد شده بر پایه طرح بلوک‏های کامل تصادفی با 3 تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان در سال زراعی 1393 – 1392 اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل آبیاری در دو سطح (آبیاری کامل و قطع آبیاری در شروع مرحله گلدهی) به‌عنوان فاکتور اصلی، محلولپاشی توسط اسپرمیدین در 3 سطح (0، 1 و 2 میلی‌مولار) بعنوان فاکتور فرعی و اکوتیپ زیره در 3 سطح (کرمان، خراسان و اصفهان) به‌عنوان فاکتور فرعی فرعی بود. نتایج نشان داد که به استثنای تعداد شاخه فرعی و چتر در بوته دیگر صفات مورد بررسی تحت تاثیر تیمار قطع آبیاری قرار گرفتند. قطع آبیاری در مرحله گلدهی زیره سبز باعث کاهش تعداد دانه در چتر، بوته میری، عملکرد تک بوته و عملکرد دانه شد. در حالی‌که، صفات شاخص برداشت، درصد و عملکرد اسانس و محتوی پرولین در تیمار قطع آبیاری بیشتر از آبیاری کامل بود. به دلیل تعداد زیاد بوته از بین رفته در شرایط آبیاری کامل، میزان کاهش عملکرد دانه در هکتار تحت تاثیر تیمار قطع آبیاری بسیار کمتر از تک بوته بود. به‏طوری‏که، قطع آبیاری باعث کاهش 58 و 15 درصدی عملکرد دانه به ترتیب در بوته و هکتار نسبت به شرایط شاهد شد. در کلیه صفات مورد بررسی، اکوتیپ خراسان و کرمان نسبت به اکوتیپ اصفهان برتری نشان دادند. بیشترین میزان اسانس (92/14 کیلوگرم در هکتار) در تیمار محلولپاشی یک میلی‌مولار و برای اکوتیپ خراسان حاصل شد و کمترین میزان این صفت (87/6 کیلوگرم در هکتار) در تیمار عدم محلولپاشی برای اکوتیپ اصفهان بدست آمد. هیچ یک از صفات مورد بررسی تحت تاثیر محلولپاشی اسپرمیدین قرار نگرفت و بطور کلی، دو اکوتیپ کرمان و خراسان با توجه به واکنش مناسب‌تر به قطع آبیاری از پتانسیل بالاتری جهت کشت در شرایط آب و هوایی کرمان برخوردار بودند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Irrigation CutOff on Flowering Stage and Foliar Application of Spermidine on Some Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Various Ecotypes of Cumin

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sarah Bakhtari
  • Gholam Reza Khajoei Nejad
  • Ghasem Mohamadi Nejad
  • Rooholla Moradi
MSc Student Agronomy, shahid Bahonar University of kerman-Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Medicinal plants play major roles in human health. . Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) is an annual plant that commonly cultivated in arid and semiarid regions of Iran. The crop has a wide range of uses including medicinal, cosmetic and food industry. Cumin occupies about 26% of the total area devoted to medicinal plants in Iran. However, cumin is seriously affected by the Fusarium wilt and blight diseases. The diseases usually increase under warm and wet conditions. It was demonstrated that the peak of the disease incidence is occurring at the flowering stage and irrigation cutoff at this time may be reduced the diseases density.
Materials and methods: In order to evaluate the effects of irrigation cutoff in flowering stage and foliar application of spermidine on some characteristics of various ecotype of cumin, an experiment was conducted in a split-split-plot arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replications at the research farm of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman at 2014. The experimental treatments were irrigation in two levels (complete irrigation and cutoff the irrigation in flowering stage) assigned to main plots, foliar application of spermidine in three levels (0, 1 and 2 Mm) as a subplot and cumin ecotypes in three levels (Kerman, Khorasan and Esfahan) that was randomized in sub-subplot. Plots size under the trial was 4 m × 3 m so as to get 50 cm inter row spacing in six rows. The ideal density of the crops was considered as 120 plant m-2. As soon as the seeds were sown, irrigation was applied every 10 days. Foliar application of spermidine was done at three stages (after thinning, before flowering stage and in the middle of flowering stage). No herbicides and chemical fertilizers were applied during the expriments.
Results and discussion: In this study the number of branches, umbels per plant, 1000-seed weight, seed yield per plant and hectare, harvest index, essential oil percentage and yield, infected plants and proline contents were assessed. The results showed that irrigation treatment had a significant effect on all the studied traits except number of branches and umbels per plant. The irrigation cutoff at flowering stage caused a significant increase in seeds per umbel, infected plants and seed yield per plant and hectare Whereas harvest index, essential oil percentage and yield and proline contents were higher in irrigation cutoff treatment compared to completely irrigated treatment. The value of decrease in seed yield per hectare as affected by irrigation cutoff was so lower than that per plant; because more infected plants were observed in completely irrigatedtreatment in comparison with cutoff irrigated treatment. Decreasing the value of the seed yield per plant and hectare affected by irrigation cut-off were 58 and 15%, respectively. Proline contents in irrigation cut-off treatment were about two times more than completely irrigatedtreatment. Khorasan and Kerman ecotypes had higher value in comparison with Esfahan in all studied traits.. Seed yield per hectare for Kerman, Khorasan and Esfahan ecotypes were 525, 306 and 525 kg, respectively. The highest essential oil yield (14.92 kg ha-1) was gained in 1 Mm spermidine for Khorasan ecotype and the lowest (6.87 kg ha-1) was observed in 0 Mm spermidine for Esfahan ecotype. There was no significant difference between foliar application levels in terms of the studied traits such as….
Conclusion: Irrigation cutoff at flowering stage caused a significant increase in seeds per umbel, infected plants and seed yield per plant and hectare Whereas harvest index, essential oil percentage and yield and proline contents were higher in irrigation cutoff treatment compared to completely irrigated treatment. Khorasan and Kerman ecotypes achieved higher potential for cultivation in Kerman climate condition compared to Esfahan ecotype.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Essential oil
  • Drought stress
  • Medicinal plants
  • Poly-amine
  • Proline
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