نقش براسینواسترویید روی بهبود ویژگی ‏های کیفی میوه توت فرنگی رقم پاروس

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه تبریز

2 دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان

چکیده

توت‏فرنگی از جمله میوه‏های ریز است که ارزش تغذیه‏ای و تازه‏خوری بالایی دارد. کاربرد هورمون‏های گیاهی نظیر براسینواسترویید نقش مهمی در بهبود ویژگی‏های کیفی محصولات باغبانی دارند. در این تحقیق تاثیر غلظت‏های مختلف براسینواسترویید و زمان محلول‏پاشی روی برخی از صفات کیفی توت‏فرنگی رقم پاروس بررسی گردیده است. بدین ترتیب، محلول‏پاشی بوته‏ها، توسط براسینواسترویید با غلظت‏های0 (شاهد) ، 25/0، 5/0، 75/0 و 1 میلی‏گرم بر لیتر و در چهار مرحله زمانی (مرحله 30 روز بعد از کشت نشا، شروع گلدهی، میوه‏های سبز رنگ و صورتی رنگ) به صورت یک آزمایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‏های کامل تصادفی با 4 تکرار در شرایط گلخانه انجام گرفت و ویژگی‏هایی نظیر: کل مواد جامد محلول، قندهای احیاکننده، اسید قابل تیتر، میزان آنتوسیانین، فنول، وزن خشک میوه، آب میوه و ویتامین ث اندازه‏گیری شدند. نتایج نشان داد، کیفیت میوه‏های گیاهان تیمار شده با براسینواسترویید نسبت به شاهد، کیفیت آن‌ها بهبود یافت. به طوری که، کل مواد جامد محلول، قندهای احیاکننده، اسید قابل تیتر، میزان آنتوسیانین، فنول، وزن خشک و ویتامین ث با کاربرد سطوح مختلف براسینواسترویید افزایش یافت و موثرترین تیمار، براسینواسترویید1 میلی‏گرم بر لیتر و بهترین زمان محلول پاشی، مرحله شروع گلدهی و سبز رنگ شدن میوه بوده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Role of Brassinosteroid on Qualitative Characteristics Improvement of Strawberry Fruit cv. Paros

نویسندگان [English]

  • soheila mohammadrezakhani 1
  • zahra pakkish 2
  • Somaye Rafeii 2
1 Tabriz University
2 Shahid Bahonar University
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Recently, strawberry growers have been mostly interested in growing cultivars for the fresh market because of its profitability, but on the other hand it requires more complicated technologies and well-educated workers. High quality of the fruit for the fresh market is an important factor attracts customers and determines their choice and prices. Fruit production cost for the fresh market needs to be calculated and efficient methods and technologies also should be taken into consideration. New environmentally friendly mineral-organic fertilizers can improve fruit quality and yield of dessert strawberry cultivars. The desired effects was obtained through the activity of fertilizer’s components, which very often belong to different groups of natural hormones, elicitors, vitamins, flavonoids, amino acids, etc. Numerous breeding programs have been aimed at improving strawberry taste and disease resistance. Three major components of fruit organoleptic quality are flavor, sweetness, and acidity. Several studies have been devoted to strawberry aroma. Fruit with intense flavor also have high titratable acidity and high soluble solids. Numerous studies have addressed strawberry sweetness and acidity. Fruit soluble solids, sugars, titratable acidity, and organic acids at maturity are quantitatively inherited. Moreover, there appears to be genetic variations for these fruit quality traits. Numerous biochemical changes are observed during strawberry development and especially during fruit ripening. The major soluble constituents of maturing and ripe strawberries are soluble sugars and organic acids. The major soluble sugars in strawberries are glucose, fructose, and sucrose. The major organic acid is citric acid. This acid contributes greatly to fruit titratable acidity, which declines gradually during fruit development. The sugar/ organic acid ratio is a major parameter of strawberry taste. Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a class of poly hydroxyl steroids, which have been recognized as a class of plant hormones. These were first explored when Mitchell et al. (1970) reported that cell division and elongation were promoted by the treatment of organic extracts of rape (Brassica napus L.) pollen. Brassinolide (BL) was the first isolated brassinosteroid when Michael et al. (1979) isolated the biologically active molecule. Researches showed that brassinosteroids are essential for many physiological functions in plants, however little is known concerning where and when they are synthesized. In young tomato seedlings BR synthesis activity was observed mainly in apical and root tissues undergoing expansion. In flowers, synthesis activity was observed in the pedicel joints and ovaries, whereas in the fruits it was strongest during early seed development and was associated with the locular jelly and seeds. Quantitative measurements of endogenous BR indicated intense biosynthesis in developing tomato fruits, which were also found to contain high amounts of brassinolide. Moreover, brassinosteroids stimulate cell elongation and cell division, and BR has a specific effect of differentiation. Underling physiological pathways include modification of cell wall properties, effects on carbohydrate assimilation, allocation, and control of aquaporin activities. Brassinosteroids apparently coordinates and integrates diverse processes required for growth, partly via interactions with phytohormones setting the frame for BR responses. The aim of present study was investigation of the role of brassinosteroid on qualitative characteristics improvement of strawberry fruit.
Materials and Methods: In this research the effect of different concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1 mgl-1) of brassinosteroid sprayat different stages of strawberry growth (30 days after planting, first blooming, green fruit, and pink fruit) on some qualitative characteristics of the strawberry Paros cultivar was considered. This experiment was conducted asfactorial on a randomized complete block design with 4 replications in greenhouse conditions. Parameters such as total soluble solid, inducing sugar, titrable acidity, anthocyanin, phenol, fruit dry weight, fruit water and vitamin C were measured after….
Results and Discussion: Results showed treated plants by brassinosteroid, compared to control, improved fruit qualitative characteristics. So, brassinosteroid application increased total soluble solid, inducing sugar, titratable acidity, anthocyanin, phenol, dry weight, vitamin C.The best effective treatment and the best spraying time was brassinosteroid at 1 mgl-1 in pink fruit stage, respectively for qualitative characteristics improvement. Because, Brassinosteroid growth induced has been related to increase in RNA and DNA content, polymerase activity, protein synthesis carbohydrate fraction, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars and starch. The yield increase in fruit trees may be related to improvement in the assimilation efficiency of photosynthetic carbon of the sprayed trees. The brassinosteroid application in wheat and mustard plants stimulated photosynthetic activity expressed by acceleration in CO2 fixing, increase protein biosynthesis and in mustard, increased photosynthetic rates that were directly related to growth and seed production. In accordance, researchers explained that BRs have been shown to enhance tracheary element differentiation, stimulate membrane hyperpolarization and ATPase activity, promote ethylene biothynsesis, control microtubule orientation and alter the mechanical properties of cell walls. In addition, brassinosteroid treatment greatly stimulated accumulation of photosynthates in the treated internode. This suggests a possible mobilization role for BR in the intact plant. As well as, in persimmon, grapevine and citrus, reported that BR compound showed, the practical effects for fruit setting. While, showed that brassinolide increased fruit weight and sugar content of oranges. In passion fruit orchards, brassinosteroid increased fruit number of plant and in turn yield per hectare and soluble solids content was 1° Brix greater than the control.
Conclusions: From this study, it is evident that the application of plant biostimulants such as brassinosteroid significantly improved qualitative characteristics. So, brassinosteroid application increased total soluble solid, inducing sugar, titrable acidity, anthocyanin, phenol, dry weight, vitamin C and effective treatment and best spraying was brassinosteroid at 1 mgl-1 at pink fruit stage for qualitative characteristics improvement.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Anthocyanin
  • Total soluble solid
  • vitamin C
1-Ali B., Hayat S., Hasan A.S., and Ahmad A. 2006. Effect of root applied 28-homobrassinolide on the performance of Lycopersicon esculentum. Science Horticulture, 110:267-273
2-Abdollahi S., Eshghi S., and Tafazoli E. 2010. Interaction of pclobutrazol, Boron and Zinc on Vegetative Growth, Yield and Fruit Quality of Strawberry (Fragaria × Ananassa Duch. Cv. Selva). Journal Biology Enviromental Science, 4(11): 67-75.
3-Assis G., Menezes M., and Eliemar C. 2006. Brassinosteroid analogue effect on the yield passion fruit plants. Scientia Horticulturae, 110: 235-240.
4-Ahmadipoor roghaba A., and Pakkish Z. 2014. Role of Brassinosteroid on Yield, Fruit Quality and Postharvest Storage of ‘Tak Danehe Mashhad’ Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.). Agricultural Communications, 2(4): 49-56.
5-Bakshi P., Bhat D.J., Wali V.K., Sharma A., and Iqbal, M. 2014.Growth, yield and quality of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) cv. Chandler as influenced by various mulching materials. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 9(7): 701-706.
6-Barney D.L., Davis B., and Fellman J.K. 1992. Strawberry production. Overview, alternative agricultural Enterprises. St. Poul, Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station.
7-Basiouny F.M. 1996. Blueberry fruit quality and storability influenced by postharvest application of polyamines and heat treatments. Proceeding Fland State Horticulture Socity, 109: 269-272.
8-Bajguz A., and Andrzej T. 2003. The chemical characteristic and distribution of brassinosteroids in plant. Phytochemistry, 62: 1027- 1046.
9-Clous S.D., and Sasse M. 1998. Brassinosteroids: essential regulators of plant growth and development. Annual Physiology Reviews, 49: 427- 451.
10-Eleiwa M., Bafeel S., and Ibrahim S.A. 2011. Influence of brassinosteroids on wheat plant (Triticum aestivum L) production under salinity stress condition. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 5(5): 58- 65.
11-Enteshari S., Kalantari K., and Ghorbani M. 2006. The effect of epibrassinosteroid and different bands of ultra violent radiation on the pigments content in glycine max. Pakistan Journal of Biological Science, 9(2): 231-237.
12-Fariduddin Q., Yusuf M., Hayat S., and Ahmad A. 2009. Effect of 28-homobrassinolide on antioxidant capacity and photosynthesis in Brassica Juncea plants exposed to different levels of copper. Environmental Experimental Botany, 66:418-424.
13-Faroog M., Wahid A., Basra S.M. 2009. Improving water relation and gas exchange with brassinosteroids in rice under drought stress. Journal Agronomy and Science, 195: 262–269.
14-Gomes M., Campostrini E., Leal N.R., Viana A.P., Ferraz T.M., Siqueira L.N., Rosa R.C.C., Netto A.T., and Nunez-Vazquez M. 2006. Brassinosteroid analogue effects on the yield of yellow passion fruit plants (Passiflora edulis). Scientia Horticulture, 110: 235-235.
15-Kashi E.V., and Hekmati J. 1992. Strawberry cultivation. Ahmadi Press Tehran.401p.
16-Kher R., Baba J. A., and Bakshi P. 2010. Influence of planting time and mulching material on growth and fruit yield of strawberry cv. Chandler. Indian Journal Horticulture, 67(4): 441-444.
17-Khripach V., Zhabinskii V., and Groot A. D. 1998. Brassinosteroids: a new class of plant hormones acadamic press. United States of American. 460p.
18-Krizek D.T., Brita S.J., and Miewcki R. M. 1998. Inhibitory effects of ambient level of solar UV-A and UV-B on growth of cv New red fire Lettuce. Physiology Plant, 103:1-7.
19-Kirnak H., Kaya C., Tas, I., and Higgs D. 2001. The influence of Water deficit on vegetative growth, physiology, fruit yield and quality in egg plants. Plant Physiology, 27: 34-46.
20-Lieten P. 2002. Boron deficiency of strawberries grown in substrate culture. Proc. 4th Int. Strawberry Symp, 1:451-454.
21-Lichtenthder, H.K. 1987. Chlorophyllus and carotenoids: Pigments of photosynthetic biomembranes. Methods in Enzymology, 148: 350-382.
22-Malik, C.P., and Singh M.B. 1980. In: Plant enzymology and histoenzymology. Kalyani Publishers. New Dehli. 286 P.
23-Nazarpur, M. 2005. Effect of soil and foliar application of paclobutrazol on vegetative and reproductive characteristics of strawberry (Fragaria × Ananassa Duch. cv. Camarosa). MSc. Thesis, Shiraz University.
24-Ogweno J., Song X., Shi K., Hu W., Mao W., Zhou Y., Yu J., and Nogues S. 2008. Brassinosteroids alleviate heat-induced inhibition of photosynthesis by increasing carboxylation efficiency and enhancing antioxidant systems in Lycopersicon esculentum. Journal Plant Growth Regulation, 27: 49–57.
25-Pereira-Netto A., Cruz-Silva C., Schaefer S., Ramirez J., and Galagovsky L., 2006. Brassinosteroid-stimulated branch elongation in the Marubakaido apple rootstock. Trees, 20: 286–291.
26-Somogy, M. 1952. Notes on sugar determination. Journal of Biochemistry, 195: 19-29.
27-Swamy K.N., and Ram Rao S. 2006. Influence of brassinosteroids on rooting and growth of Geranium (Pelargonium sp.) stem cutting. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 5(4): 619-622.
28-Symons G.M., Davies C., Shavrukov Y., Dry I.B., Reid J.B., Thomas M.R., 2006. Grapes on steroids. Brassinosteroids are involved in grape berry ripening. Plant Physiol, 140: 150–158.
29-Tabatabaei S.J., Fatemi L.S., and Fallahi E. 2006. Effect of ammonium: nitrate ratio on yield, calcium concentration and photosynthesis rate in strawberry. Plant Nutition, 29: 1273-1285.
30-Verma A., Malik C.P., and Gupta V.K. 2012. In Vitro effect of Brassinosteroids on the Growth and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Groundnut. ISRN Agronomy, 2012: 1-8.
31-Vardhini B.V., and Ram Rao, S. 1998. Effect of brassinosteroids on growth, metabolite content and yield Arachis hypogaea. Phytochemistry, 48: 927- 930.
32-Wang S.Y., and Lin H.S. 2000. Antioxidant activity in fruits and leaves of blackberry, raspberry and strawberry varies cultivar and developmental stage. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 48: 140-148.
33-Xu R.J., Li X. D., He Y.L., Wang Y.Q., and Zhao Y.J. 1994. Effect of treatment with epibrassinolid and chloride lacton on the fruit set and ripening in some grape cultivation. Shanghai Agricultural College Journal, 12: 90-95.
34-Yuan G., Jia C., Li Z., Sun B., and Wang Q. 2010. Effect of brassinosteroids on drought resistance and abscisic acid concentration in tomato under water stress. Plant Physiology, 6(1): 123-128.
35-Yu J.A., Huong L.F., Hu W.H., Zhou Y.H., Mao W.H., Yu S.F., and Nogues S. 2004. A role for brassinosteroids in the regulation photosynthesis in cucumber satiuus. Journal Exposed Botany, 55: 1135- 1143
36-Zokae-Khosroshahi M.R., Esna-Ashari M., and Ershadi A. 2007. Effect of exogenous puterscine on post-harvest life of strawberry (Fragari ananassa) fruit, cultivare Selva. Scientia Horticulturae, 114: 27-32.
37-Zhu Z., Zhanguan Z., Guozheng, Q., and Shiping T. 2010. Effect of Brassinosteroids on postharvest disease and senescence of jujube fruit in storage. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 56: 50-55.