تاثیر روش پیوند، پوشش محل پیوند و محلول پاشی برخی عناصر معدنی بر میزان گیرایی پیوند و بقای زمستانه در نهال‌های پیوندی گردو

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی آذربایجان غربی

2 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد مهاباد

چکیده

با هدف افزایش درصد گیرایی پیوند و کاهش خسارت سرمازدگی در نهالهای پیوندی گردو، در این تحقیق در آزمایشی اثرات فاکتوریلی سه روش پیوند (اسکنه ای، تاجی و زینی) و دو نوع پوشش محل پیوند (خاک اره مرطوب و پوشش سوپر جاذب+پنبه) و در آزمایش دیگر اثرات فاکتوریلی سه روش پیوند (اسکنه ای، تاجی و زینی) و دو سطح محلول پاشی (کلسیم + روی + بور و عدم محلول پاشی (شاهد)) بر درصد گیرایی پیوند، درصد عناصر بافت، رشد کیفی نهال و میزان سرمازدگی نهال ها در قالب طرح بلوکهای کامل تصادفی در شرایط فضای باز بررسی شدند. بر اساس نتایج آزمایش اول، روش پیوند و پوشش محل پیوند بر درصد گیرایی و رشد کیفی (طول و قطر) پیوندک تاثیر معنی داری داشت. در هر سه روش پیوند استفاده از پوشش خاک اره باعث افزایش معنی دار درصد گیرایی به 0/90، 3/77 و 3/63 درصد به ترتیب در پیوندهای زینی، اسکنه ای و تاجی گردید. بر اساس نتایج آزمایش دوم، کمترین درصد سرمازدگی سرشاخهها نیز در پیوند زینی و اسکنهای مشاهده گردید و محلول پاشی عناصر کلسیم، بور و روی در مقایسه با شاهد سبب افزایش معنی دار عناصر فوق در بافت و کاهش درصد خسارت سرمازدگی (6/11 در مقابل 4/29%) در سرشاخه های نهال پیوندی گردید. بنابراین، استفاده از پیوند زینی، اسکنهای و تاجی با پوشش خاک اره و نیز محلول پاشی نهالهای پیوندی با کلسیم، روی و بور در نهالستانها توصیه می‌گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Grafting Method, Graft Cover and Foliar Spray of some Mineral Elements on Persian Walnut Graft-take and Winter Survival Rate

نویسندگان [English]

  • Reza Rezaee 1
  • Faranak Naghilou 2
1 West Azerbaijan Agriculture and Natural Resources research and Educationcenter, Urmia
2 Islamic Azad University, Mahabad
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.) is an important nut crop in Iran and many parts of the world. One of the major challenges of growing walnut is planting of non-grafted walnut trees in orchards, which leads to the reduction of yield, quality and productivity of walnut orchards. Compared to the other fruit trees, walnut grafting is difficult and even newly grafted walnut seedlings are vulnerable to fall or winter frost chilling, so that most of the seedlings are lost after subjecting to the cold winter. There are a few studies reporting successful grafting in outdoor conditions, however, final grafting take after winter has been usually ignored. Hence, increased walnut grafting success and improved tree growth after grafting through foliar nutrient application may lead to increased tolerance of chilling. Therefore, main goals of this research were to investigate the effect of some graft covers and role of foliar spray of calcium, boron and zinc on the reduction of frost damage in newly grafted seedlings under outdoor conditions.
Materials and methods: This research was conducted at agricultural research station, Khoy city, west Azerbaijan province, during 2012-2014. In the first experiment, three methods of grafting including cleft, bark and V-shaped, and two kinds of graft covers including moist sawdust and superabsorbent plus cotton wool were investigated in terms of grafting success and quality of seedlings. In the second experiment, effect of the three above-mentioned grafting methods and two levels of foliar spray including sequential spray of Ca (4 ppm), B and Zn (2%) (3 times during growth season) and control (no spray) were studied in terms of frost damage. The experiments conducted in factorial based on randomized complete block design with 10 trees in each plot. Data were collected 45 days after grafting take, final grafting take after one winter, subsequent scion growth length and diameter and concentration of Ca, B and Zn in the tissues of shoot tips as well as percentage of frost damage one year after grafting. The collected data were transformed by relevant methods and analyzed by GLM analysis using SPSS software.
Results and discussion: According to the results obtained from the first experiment, significant differences were observed among grafting methods and grafting covers in terms of grafting success and scion growth. Cleft grafting with the grafting take of 47.4% after 45 days was ranked as the best method, followed by bark and V-shaped grafting methods with 40.0 and 35.0 %, respectively. Meanwhile, V-shaped grafting method finally showed the highest grafting take with 46.6%. The effect of grafting type was also significant for scion shoot length and diameter, with the highest scion growth obtaining from bark grafting method. Regarding the effect of cover types, significant differences were found between the two types of covers, so that the highest grafting take (75.5%) obtained from moist sawdust cover compared to the lowest grafting take (11.1%) from super absorbent plus cotton wool cover. The increase found in grafting success by sawdust cover was in agreement with the previous reports. This increase can be attributed to the buffering action of sawdust in absorbing xylem sap, provision of moist and aerated conditions suitable for better callus formation and subsequent scion growth without any wood rot symptoms around the graft area. The results of the second part of the research also revealed that percentage of frost to dieback of shoots varied statistically among the three grafting methods. The lowest frost damage (17.5%) was related to the cleft followed by V-shaped grafting method (20.0%). The highest frost damage (24.6%) was observed on scion woods grafted by bark grafting method. Results related to foliar spray showed that spray of Ca, B and Zn caused a significant reduction in frost damage percentage. In the sprayed plots, the average of frost damage was only 11.6% compared to the control plot with the damage rate of 29.4%. Moreover, foliar spray statistically increased the concentration of related elements in vegetative tissues of scion.
Conclusion: Based on the results, using V-shaped, cleft and bark grating methods covered with moist sawdust were effective for the increase of graft success percentage. Spraying of young grafted trees with Ca, B and Zn was also effective to reduce frost damage and is thus recommended in walnut nurseries. Moreover, there was a significant interaction between grafting method and spraying treatments in terms of balanced scion growth and higher contents of mineral in scion tissues, indicating that choosing an appropriate method of grafting and spraying can be effective in the reduction of frost damage. In this study, the lowest frost injury was observed with cleft grafting and spraying treatments due to relatively reduced scion growth as well as higher content of minerals in scion tissues.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Foliar spray
  • Frost damage
  • Grafting cover
  • Nursery management
  • Walnut grafting
1. Afshari S. 2000. Effect of various grafting methods and covers on grafting success in Persian walnut. Msc thesis. University of Azad Islamic, Abhar, Iran (in Persian with English abstract).
2. Atefi J. 1997. Comparison of hypocotyle and hot callus cable graft with traditional grafting method. Acta Horticulturae, 442:309- 312.
3. Avanzato D. and Atefi J. 1997. Walnut grafting by heating the graft point directly in the field. Acta Horticulturae, 442:291-294.
4. Carlson R.M. 1985. Mineral nutrient diagnosis using soil/plant analyses and symptomology. In: Walnut orchard management (Ed: D.E. Ramos), California, USA, Pp. 115-121.
5. Dehghan B. Vahdati K, Hassani D and Rezaee R. 2010. Bench-grafting of Persian walnut as affected by pre- and post-grafting heating and chilling treatments. Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology, 85(1)48-52.
6. Ebadi A., Solgui M. and Zamani Z.2002. The effect of the grafting time and callusing medium on the side grafting efficiency in Persian walnut ( J.regia L. ). Plant and Seed, Volume 18 (3): 305-294
7. Keshavarz K., Vahdati K. Samar M., Azadegan B and Patrick H. B. 2009. Foliar application of Zinc and Boron improves walnut vegetative and reproductive growth. Hort Technology, 21 (2): 181-186.
8. Kuniyuki A.H. and Forde H.I. 1985. Walnut propagation In: Walnut orchard management (Ed: D.E. Ramos), California, USA. Pp. 38-45.
9. Ozkan Y. and Gumus A. 2001. Effect of different applications on grafting under controlled conditions of walnut (J. regia L.). Acta Horticulturae, 544:515-520.
10. Rezaee R. 2005. Study on the optimum time of walnut grafting in the climate of West Azerbaijan. Final report. Agriculture and Natural Resource Research Center, Urmia, Iran(in Persian with English abstract).
11. Rezaee R. and Vahdati K. 2008. Effect of rootstock vigor and auxin on the rooting of layers and cutting in Persian Walnut. Journal of Agricultural Aboureihan, Volume 10 (2):10 - 15.
12. Rezaee R. 2007. Influence of seedling vigor on rooting and walnut graft-take. ‌Ph.D dissertation. University of Tabriz, Iran(in Persian with English abstract).
13. Rezaee R. and Vahdati K. 2008. Introducing a simple and efficient procedure for Topworking of Persian Walnut trees. Journal of the American Pomological Scociety, 62(1), 21-26.
14. Rezaee R., Vahdati K., Grigoorian V and Vallizadeh M. 2008. Walnut grafting success and bleeding rate as affected by different grafting methods and seedling vigour. Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology, 83 (1) 96-99.
15. Rongting X. and Pinghai D. 1991. Effects of phenols on the survival of walnut grafting. Acta Horticulturae, 311, 134-140.
16. Rongting X. and Pinghai D. 1993. A study on the uniting process of walnut grafting and the factors affecting graft success. Acta Horticulturae, 311, 160-170.
17. Sanders D., Pelloux J., Brownlee C. and Harper J. F. 2002. Calcium at the crossroads of signalling. Plant Cell Supplement 2002: 401-417.
18. Smith ME.1944.The role of boron in plant metabolism. 1. Boron in relation to the absorption and solubility of calcium. Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medicinal Science, 22:257–263.
19. Tabatabai S.J. 2009. Principles mineral nutrition in plants. Tabriz University. 383 pp.(in Persian).
20. Tanada T. 1983. Localization of boron in membranes. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 6:743-749.
21. Vahdati K. 2004. Walnut nursery management. Khaniran publications. 113 pp (in Persian).