بررسی تنوع مورفولوژیکی و فیزیولوژیکی برخی از توده‌های فلفل شیرین (.Capsicum annuum L)

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه لرستان

2 دانشگاه ارومیه

چکیده

فلفل از جمله مهم‌ترین سبزیجات به شمار می‌رود که علاوه بر مصارف غذایی، دارای مصارف دارویی نیز می‌باشد. به منظور مطالعه‌ی تنوع ژنتیکی فلفل شیرین از نظر صفات مورفولوژیک و فیزیولوژیک، 42 توده فلفل در قالب طرح لاتیس مستطیل در 3 تکرار در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی ساعتلوی ارومیه در سال 1392 مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد بین توده‌ها برای کل صفات به جزء صفات میزان اسپد، میزان فتوسنتز و pH اختلاف آماری معنی‌داری وجود دارد. بیشترین همبستگی فنوتیپی مثبت (958/0) و بیشترین همبستگی ژنتیکی مثبت (994/0) بین صفات وزن خشک میوه و وزن تر میوه و بیشترین همبستگی ژنتیکی منفی (587/0) بین صفات کانوپی گیاه و عرض میوه مشاهده شد. بر اساس جدول مقایسه میانگین ژنوتیپ‌های ارومیه، لردگان و اورفای ترکیه دارای عملکرد بیشتری نسبت به سایر ژنوتیپ‌ها بودند. براساس نتایج به دست آمده صفات طول میوه، عرض میوه، ضخامت دیواره میوه، عملکرد، وزن تر میوه و وزن خشک میوه دارای توارث پذیری بالای در بین صفات مورد بررسی بودند. با استفاده از تجزیه‌ی خوشه‌ای به روش وارد، توده‌های مورد بررسی بر اساس صفات مورفولوژیکی و فیزیولوژیکی در 6 گروه متفاوت قرار گرفتند و بر این اساس بیشترین فاصله بین دو خوشه‌ی چهارم و پنجم مشاهده شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation on Morphological and Physiological Variation of Some Sweet Pepper Ecotypes (Capsicum annuum L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ghahraman Bagheri 1
  • Bahman Zahedi 1
  • Reza Darvishzadeh 2
  • ahmad hajiali 1
1 Lorestan University
2 Urmia University
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Pepper is one of the most important vegetables in the world that belongs to the family of Solanaceae. It is used as a food flavoring, coloring agent and a pharmaceutical ingredient in different innovative ways. Capsicum annuum is one of the five cultivated species in the genus and the others are C. baccatum L., C. chinense, C. frutescens and C. pubescens. While C. pubescens and C. baccatum are morphologically quite distinct, C. annuum, C. chinense and C. frutescens show evidence of parallel evolution for a variety of plant and fruit morphological characteristics as a result of similar regimens of human selection. The near continuous overlapping in morphological traits among these three species led various authors to recognize them as a complicated species. Within complex, taxa are differentiated from one another based primarily on differences in corolla color, the presence or absence of a calyx constriction and the occurrence of multiple pedicels/node.
Materials and Methods: This research was conducted to evaluate genetic diversity in pepper genotypes. Morphological traits of 42 genotypes were investigated in rectangular lattice 6×7 with three replications in two separate experiments at West Azerbaijan research institute. Analysis of variance was conducted by using SAS, SPSS and MINITAB softwares. 14 traits including length and width of fruits, thickness of fruit wall, width of plant canopy, length of shoots, length of corolla, fruits fresh and dry weight, SPAD, photosynthesis, yield, vitamin C, TSS and pH were assessed according to the International Board for Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR) descriptor. Solid contents (TSS) were assessed by using refractometer, pH by using pH meter, and fruits fresh and dry weight by using a digital scale. For measuring vitamin C content, 3-10 g of the fruit tissue (pericarp and pulp) was homogenized and 100 mL of distilled water were added. Then 10 mL of sulfuric acid 20%, 1 mL of 0.01 N potassium iodide, 1 mL of 1% starch were added to the solution and then for titrating, 0.01 N potassium iodide was used.
Results and Discussion: Analysis of variance showed significant differences (at 1% level) among pepper genotypes, in terms of width of fruits, fruit wall thickness, yield, plant height, shoots diameter, length of shoots, and dry weight of fruit, TSS and vitamin C. But there were no significant difference between pH, SPAD and photosynthesis. The highest heritability was observed in length and width of fruits, fruit wall thickness, fruit pedicel length, yield, dry and fresh weight of fruits, and the lowest heritability obtained in SPAD and pH. Phenotypic variation coefficient was higher than genotypic variation coefficient for all traits, indicating the significant effects of environmental conditions. The maximum phenotypic correlation obtained between fruit fresh and dry weight (r=0.95) and also observed between fruit fresh weight and fruit wall thickness. Cluster analysis with Ward method classified studied landraces into six different groups. The highest distance was observed between groups four and five. This result showed that the maximum expected heterosis could achieve from crosses between genotypes from groups four and five.
Conclusions: High genetic variation was observed among pepper genotypes that could be helpful for morphological traits studies and to improve superior genotypes in next breeding programs.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • General heritability
  • Genetic correlation
  • morphological traits
  • Pepper
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