عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction: Pepper is one of the most important vegetables in the world that belongs to the family of Solanaceae. It is used as a food flavoring, coloring agent and a pharmaceutical ingredient in different innovative ways. Capsicum annuum is one of the five cultivated species in the genus and the others are C. baccatum L., C. chinense, C. frutescens and C. pubescens. While C. pubescens and C. baccatum are morphologically quite distinct, C. annuum, C. chinense and C. frutescens show evidence of parallel evolution for a variety of plant and fruit morphological characteristics as a result of similar regimens of human selection. The near continuous overlapping in morphological traits among these three species led various authors to recognize them as a complicated species. Within complex, taxa are differentiated from one another based primarily on differences in corolla color, the presence or absence of a calyx constriction and the occurrence of multiple pedicels/node.
Materials and Methods: This research was conducted to evaluate genetic diversity in pepper genotypes. Morphological traits of 42 genotypes were investigated in rectangular lattice 6×7 with three replications in two separate experiments at West Azerbaijan research institute. Analysis of variance was conducted by using SAS, SPSS and MINITAB softwares. 14 traits including length and width of fruits, thickness of fruit wall, width of plant canopy, length of shoots, length of corolla, fruits fresh and dry weight, SPAD, photosynthesis, yield, vitamin C, TSS and pH were assessed according to the International Board for Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR) descriptor. Solid contents (TSS) were assessed by using refractometer, pH by using pH meter, and fruits fresh and dry weight by using a digital scale. For measuring vitamin C content, 3-10 g of the fruit tissue (pericarp and pulp) was homogenized and 100 mL of distilled water were added. Then 10 mL of sulfuric acid 20%, 1 mL of 0.01 N potassium iodide, 1 mL of 1% starch were added to the solution and then for titrating, 0.01 N potassium iodide was used.
Results and Discussion: Analysis of variance showed significant differences (at 1% level) among pepper genotypes, in terms of width of fruits, fruit wall thickness, yield, plant height, shoots diameter, length of shoots, and dry weight of fruit, TSS and vitamin C. But there were no significant difference between pH, SPAD and photosynthesis. The highest heritability was observed in length and width of fruits, fruit wall thickness, fruit pedicel length, yield, dry and fresh weight of fruits, and the lowest heritability obtained in SPAD and pH. Phenotypic variation coefficient was higher than genotypic variation coefficient for all traits, indicating the significant effects of environmental conditions. The maximum phenotypic correlation obtained between fruit fresh and dry weight (r=0.95) and also observed between fruit fresh weight and fruit wall thickness. Cluster analysis with Ward method classified studied landraces into six different groups. The highest distance was observed between groups four and five. This result showed that the maximum expected heterosis could achieve from crosses between genotypes from groups four and five.
Conclusions: High genetic variation was observed among pepper genotypes that could be helpful for morphological traits studies and to improve superior genotypes in next breeding programs.