بررسی خصوصیات فیزیکوشیمیایی و آنتی‌اکسیدانتی میوه کنار هندی (Ziziphus mauritiana)

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشگاه هرمزگان

چکیده

کنار هندی با نام علمی Ziziphus mauritiana گیاهی از خانواده عناب‌سانان (Rhamnaceae) است که دارای خاصیت ضدسرطان، ضدالتهاب، ضددیابت، ضدچاقی و خاصیت آنتی‌اکسیدانتی می‌باشد. این تحقیق به منظور بررسی پارامترهای فیزیک وشیمیایی و خواص آنتی اکسیدانتی 11 ژنوتیپ کنار هندی موجود در کلکسیون شماره 1 ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی میناب در استان هرمزگان، شامل متوسط وزن میوه، طول و قطر میوه، طول و قطر هسته، سفتی، مواد جامد محلول ((TSS، میزان فنل کل (TPC) و ظرفیت آنتی اکسیدانتی انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد متوسط وزن میوه بین 57/10 و 66/23 گرم بود. بیشترین مقدار نسبت طول به قطر هسته در رقم Z11با مقدار 76/5 دیده شد. مقدار پارامتر سفتی در ژنوتیپ Z2 بیشتر بود (68/6 کیلوگرم بر سانتی‌متر مربع). میزان TSS در ژنوتیپ‌های Z6 و Z9 بیشترین مقدار را داشت (به ترتیب 69/20 و 01/20 درجه بریکس). مقدار TPC استخراج شده با حلال اتیل استات، به ترتیب در ژنوتیپ های Z11 و Z2 به ترتیب دارای بیشترین و کمترین مقدار (80 و 38 میلی گرم گالیک اسید در گرم وزن خشک میوه) بود. مقدار TPC عصاره آبی، نتایج مشابهی نداشت. بیشترین مقدار TPC در ژنوتیپ Z10 مشاهده شد. میزان جذب ABTS˚ در عصاره حاصل از حلال اتیل استات در ارقام مختلف، متفاوت بود. بیشترین میزان جذب در غلظت 40 میکروگرم عصاره در ژنوتیپ‌های Z7 و Z11 مشاهده شد. کمترین قدرت مهار کنندگی % 50 رادیکال ABTS(IC50) در ژنوتیپ Z8 مشاهده شد. بیشترین مقدار IC50 از عصاره آبی مربوط به ژنوتیپ Z6 و در حلال اتیل استات مربوط به ژنوتیپ Z8 بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study of Phytochemical Traits and Antioxidant Properties of Indian Jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana) Fruit

نویسنده [English]

  • Shadab Faramarzi
University of Hormozgan
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Ziziphus mauritiana is a plant from the family of Rhamnaceae. The fruits of Indian jujube contain high amounts of soluble sugars, non-volatile acids and phenolic compounds. Antioxidant properties and cytotoxic effects of the fruit, bark and seed of the Indian jujube has been reported. Also, it have been proven the effects of Indian jujube seed on insomnia and anxiety. Several studies have been conducted on genetic diversity based on morphological traits and molecular markers. This research was conducted to investigate the morphological traits including fresh weight, fruit length, fruit diameter, length and diameter of seed, firmness, total soluble solids (TSS), total phenol content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity of 11 Indian jujube varieties are located in Minab agricultural research station (longitude 57˚ 05, latitude 27˚ 06).
Materials and Methods: This experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Fruits were selected from trees in Minab agricultural research station and transferred to the laboratory of Minab education center. Some of fruits were also transferred to the laboratory of TarbiatModarres University and were liophylized in the Freeze-Dayer. The traits included fruit weight, length and diameter of the fruit, total soluble solids (TSS), tissue firmness and length and diameter of the seed were measured. Due to the abundant sugar content of the fruit, extraction was carried out using liquid-liquid method and with two solvents: ethyl acetate and distilled water. Total phenol content (TPC) was measured by Folinciocalteu in terms of mg of equivalent gallic acid/g of fruit dry weight. The phenolic compounds extracted was used to determine the antioxidant properties of the fruit. Scavenging of ABTS radical was calculated by spectrophotometry method at 734 nm wavelength.
Results and Discussion: The results showed that the fresh weight of the fruit was between 10.57 (Z3) and 23.66 (Z11) grams. In a study on 22 genotypes in Pakistan, fruit weight varied from 6.8 to 37.64 grams. The highest amount of fruit length to diameter ratio was seen in the genotype Z11 with a value of 5.76. For firmness parameter, the highest value was related to Z2. The highest amount of TSS was found in Z6 and Z9 genotypes (20.69 and 20.01 ˚Brix, respectively). The results of using two solvents for TPC extraction, had different results in studied genotypes. TPC extracted with ethyl acetate solution was highest in Z11 with 80 mg equivalent gallic acid / g of fruit dry weight, and then Z10 (70), Z5 (65), Z7 (60) and Z1 (55) genotypes were in order. The lowest amount of TPC was observed in Z2 with 38 mg equivalent gallic acid / g of fruit dry weight. The highest amount (45) of TPC extracted with water solvent was observed in Z10. In previous studies, it has been shown that the fruit of Indian jujube has high soluble sugars and high phenolic compounds. 12 phenolic compounds have been identified by HPLC from Indian jujube’s fruit, including caffeic, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferrolic acid and p-cumaric acid. The total phenol content and total flavonoid content was between 453.3 to 1298 mg equivalent gallic acid / 100 g of dry weight for seven Z. jujube species. Radical scavenging of ABTS˚ was different in ethyl acetate extracted solution in the studied Indian jujubes. The highest amount of ABTS˚ absorption was observed in the concentration of 40 ug of ethyl acetate extracted solution, in Z7 and Z11 genotypes, and the lowest radical inhibitory was seen in Z8. The highest IC50 in water and ethyl acetate solvents was related to Z6 and Z8 genotypes, respectively.
Conclusions: We can conclude that there was a significant morphological diversity in fruits of studied genotypes. In this study, genotype Z11 had the larger fruit than others (23.66 g), with the highest ratio of length to diameter. In a study on Indian jujubes in Pakistan, the highest fruit weight was 37.64 g. TSS in Z6 and Z9 genotypes was the highest amount (20 ˚Brix), and TSS in previous studies has been reported between 11 to 18. TPC and antioxidant capacity were different in all genotypes based on the used solvent (water and ethyl acetate). Therefore, different solvents can effect on the amount of phenolic content and radical scavenging properties. But, the highest TPC extracted with ethyl acetate solvent was observed in Z11 with 80 mg equivalent gallic acid / g of fruit dry weight, and the lowest amount was observed in Z2 with 38 mg equivalent gallic acid / g of fruit dry weight. From antioxidant capacity point of view, the highest amount of ABTS˚ absorption was observed in ethyl acetate extracted solution of Z7 and Z11 genotypes.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • ABTS radical
  • Antioxidant activity
  • Indian jujube
  • Phenol content
  • TSS
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