بررسی پاسخ اکوفیزیولوژیکی گیاهان پیوندی و غیرپیوندی دو توده طالبی و گرمک ایرانی در شرایط تنش شوری

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه ولیعصر رفسنجان

2 دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

به‌منظور ارزیابی اثرات پایه بر تحمل به شوری توده‌های گرمک و سمسوری بر اساس شاخص‌های اکوفیزیولوژیکی، گیاهان غیرپیوندی و پیوندی سمسوری و گرمک روی پایه‌های تجاری ʼفرروʽ، ʼشینتوزاʽ و ʼارگوʽ و توده محلی کدو قلیانی تحت تیمار شوری (صفر، 20 و 40 میلی‌مولار کلرید سدیم) قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد که در تیمارهای شوری گیاهان پیوندی نسبت به گیاهان غیرپیوندی در صفات مورد بررسی برتری داشتند. همچنین بین پایه‌های آزمون‌شده تفاوت مشاهده شد، به‌گونه‌ای که هیبرید ʼارگوʽ نسبت به دیگر پایه‌ها در بیشتر ویژگی‌های ارزیابی‌شده ضعیف‌تر بود. طبق نتایج، تنش شوری میزان پرولین و کاروتنوئید برگ را افزایش داد، این افزایش در گیاهان پیوندی کمتر از غیرپیوندی‌ها بود. همچنین میزان کلروفیل کل و محتوای نسبی آب برگ کاهش یافت که در گیاهان غیرپیوندی این کاهش بیشتر بود. با افزایش شوری پتانسیل فشار آوندی کاهش یافت. این مقدار در گیاهان غیرپیوندی نسبت ‌به گیاهان پیوندشده روی هیبرید ʼفرروʽ و کدوقلیانی کمتر بود. در توده گرمک افزایش شوری در هیچ‌یک از پایه‌های ʼفرروʽ، ʼکدو قلیانیʽ و ʼشینتوزاʽ تفاوت معنی‌داری در شاخص کارآیی فتوسنتزی ایجاد نکرد اما در گیاهان پیوندشده روی هیبرید ʼارگوʽ کمترین میزان این شاخص در سطح شوری 20 میلی‌مولار مشاهده شد. با افزایش شوری میزان قندهای محلول گیاهان پیوند شده روی هیبرید ʼفرروʽ و کدو قلیانی کاهش یافت ولی در گیاهان پیوند شده روی هیبرید ʼشینتوزاʽ افزایش شوری میزان قندهای محلول را افزایش داد. براساس یافته‌های پژوهش حاضر پایه‌های ʼفرروʽ و ʼشینتوزاʽ در ترکیب با توده‌های گرمک و سمسوری به شوری تحمل بیشتری نشان دادند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation on Eco-physiological Responses of Grafted and Non-grafted Plants in Two Iranian Melon Accessions under Salinity Stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • Elahe rajabipour 1
  • Mahmoud raghami 1
  • Hamid reza karimi 1
  • Reza salehi 2
1 Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan
2 University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Varieties of melons have long been the most important crops in Iran and have a special place in Iran's agricultural economy which is the third major producers in the world. Different types of melons belong to various botanical groups of Cucumis melo. Salinity stress is one of the limiting factors in the production of crops. Majority lands in Iran have arid and semi-arid conditions. The characteristics of these regions are high evaporation and low rainfall, which causes the accumulation of different salts in the surface layer of the earth. Salinity is one of the most important issues in the world, and millions of tons of salt are come annually from irrigation water into agricultural land. Therefore, many plants are encountered to saline soils. Grafting is developing as a new and effective way to increase the tolerance of plants to salinity in advanced countries. Several reports indicate that the rootstock type has a significant role in the resistance of the scion to environmental stresses. In the present study, salinity tolerance of two Iranian melon accessions (‘Garmak’ and ‘Samsouri’) were investigated based on eco-physiological traits, on three commercial rootstocks and a local variety of cucurbit, as well as comparing them with non-grafting plant of ‘Garmak’ and ‘Samsouri’,.
Materials and Methods: This experiment was conducted as factorial in a completely randomized design with three factors including salinity stress (in three levels) and four rootstocks and two scions with three replications in greenhouse and field of the faculty of agriculture, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Iran. In this study, two melon accessions (‘Garmak’ and ‘Samsouri’) were grafted on commercial hybrids rootstocks (‘Ferro’, ‘Shintozwa’ and ‘Ergo’) and a local variety of bottle gourd and subjected to salinity treatments (0, 20 and 40 mM levels of sodium chloride) in the field. One month after adaptation of grafted plants, grafted and non-grafted plants were transferred to the field and salinity treatment (sodium chloride) was applied one week after planting in the field. The evaluated traits at the end of the experiment were: photosynthetic parameters (total chlorophyll, total carotenoids, photosynthetic efficiency index), relative water content, vascular pressure potential, proline and soluble sugars.
Results and Discussion: The results showed that in salinity treatments, grafted plants were superior to non-grafted plants in studied traits. Differences were also observed between the tested rootstocks, so that the ‘Ergo’ hybrid was weaker in many features than other rootstocks and even non-grafted plants. The results showed that salinity increased the amount of proline and carotenoids in the leaf, which was lower in grafted than non-grafted plants. With increasing salinity, the pressure of vascular pressure decreased. This amount was lower in non-grafted than in plants grafted on ‘Ferro’ and ‘bottle gourd’. Also, the total chlorophyll content and relative water content of leaf decreased, which this reduction was higher in non-grafted plants. Among the traits mentioned, the best studied rootstocks were ‘Ferro’ and ‘Shintozwa’ that were better than other rootstocks as well as non-grafted plants. By increasing salinity, the soluble sugars of grafted plants on ‘Ferro’ and ‘bottle gourd’ decreased, but in grafted plants on ‘Shintozwa’ hybrid, increased salinity increased the soluble sugars content.
Conclusions The results of this study showed that salinity stress significantly reduced the relative water content of leaves, photosynthetic pigments and carotenoids. Salinity also increased the potency of vascular pressure potential and proline concentration. Compared to non-grafted plants, the negative effects of salinity stress on non-grafted plants were more prominent than grafted plants. Also, the amount of photosynthetic parameters in grafted plants decreased less than non-grafted plants. Comparing the two evaluated accessions, ‘Samsouri’ was more appropriate than stress conditions. Compared to non-grafted and grafted plants in non-stress conditions, the best rootstock was ‘Ferro’, which showed the best result for all traits except for proline content in both ‘Samsouri’ and ‘Garmak’. At a salinity level of 40 mM, the ‘Ferro’ and ‘Shintozwa’ were superior to other rootstocks, which showed satisfactory results in most traits. Also, due to the poor reaction of the grafted plants on the bottle gourd rootstock under salt stress conditions, it seems that this rootstock probably due to low compatibility is not a suitable rootstock for two evaluated accessions in the present study. Based on the findings of the present study, ‘Ferrero’ and Shintozwa’ in combination with ‘Samsouri’ and ‘Garmak’ showed more tolerance to salinity.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Grafting
  • Photosynthetic parameters
  • Samsouri
  • Shinozwa
  • Sodium Chloride
tes L., Waldren R.P., and Teare I.D. 1973. Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies. Plant and Soil, 39: 205-207.
2- Chen G., and Wang R. 2008. Effects of salinity on growth and concentrations of sodium, potassium and calcium in grafted cucumber seedlings. Acta Horticulturae, 771: 217-224.
3- Dezhban A., Shirvany A., Attarod P., Delshad M., and Matinizadeh M. 2015. Cadmium effect on the chlorophyll fluorescence, chlorophyll pigments and proline contents of Celtis caucasica and Robinia pseudoacacia seedlings leaves. Journal of Plant Researches (Iranian Journal of Biology). 28(4): 746-758. (In Persian with English abstract)
4- Edelstein M. 2004. Grafting vegetable crop plants: Pros and cons. Acta Horticulturae, 659: 235-238.
5- FAO. 2014. FAOSTAT agricultural database. From http://apps.fao.org
6- Kafi M., and Stewart D.S. 2001. Effects of salinity on growth and yield of nine wheat cultivars. Agricultural Sciences and Technology, 12(1).
7- Kafi, M. 2009. The effects of salinity and light on photosynthesis, respiration and chlorophyll fluorescence in salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive wheat (Triticum aetivum L.) cultivars. Journal of Agricultural Science, 11: 535-547.
8- Kashi A., Salehi R., and Javanpour R. 2008. Grafting Technology in Vegetable Crop Production. Agricultural Training Publishing. 212 p. (In Persian).
9- Lichtenthaler H.K. 1987. Chlorophylls and carotenoids: Pigments of photosynthetic biomembranes. Methods in Enzymology, 148: 350-382.
10- Matysik J., Bhalu B., and Mohanty P. 2002. Molecular mechanisms of quenching of reactive oxygen species by proline under stress in plants. Current Science, 82(5): 525-532.
11- Modares A., Sorush A., and Jalali M. 2004. Changes in chlorophyll fluorescence and content of sunflower plants under stress and Zn and Mn application. Journal of Desert, 9(1): 93-109.
12- Mohsenian Y., Roosta H.R., Karimi H.R., and Esmailizade M. 2012. Investigation of the ameliorating effects of eggplant, Datura, orange nighshade, local Iranian tobacco and field tomato as rootstocks on alkali stress in tomato plants. Photosynthetica, 50: 411-421.
13- Nemati M., and Asghari A. 2013. Changes in Chlorophyll Content and Fluorescence and Total Soluble Sugars Rapeseed Cultivars under Osmotic Stress. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture and Production Science, 167-181. (In Persian with English Abstract)
14- Orcutt D.M., and Nilsen E.T. 2000. The Physiology of Plant under Stress, Soil and Biotic Factors. 1st Edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York.
15- Pandey R., and Agarwal R.M. 1998. Water stress-induced changes in proline contents and nitrate reductase activity in rice under light and dark conditions. Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants, 4: 53-57.
16- Raghami M., Lopez-Sese A.I., Hasandokht M.R., Zamani Z., Fattahi Moghadam M.R., and Kashi A. 2014. Genetic diversity among melon accessions from Iran and their relationships with melon germplasm of diverse origins using microsatellite markers. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 300: 139-151.
17- Rivero R.M., Ruiz J.M., and Romero L. 2003. Role of grafting in horticultural plants under stress conditions. Journal of Food Agriculture and Environment, 1: 70-74.
18- Romero L., Belakbir A., Ragala L., and Ruiz J.M. 1997. Response of plant yield and leaf pigments to saline conditions: effectiveness of different rootstocks in melon plants (Cucumis melo L.). Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 43(4): 855-862.
19- Salehi R., Kashi A., Lee J.M., Babalar M., Delshad M., Lee S.G., and Huh Y.C. 2010. Effect of Grafting on Survival Rate and Primary Growth of Melon and Muskmelon Seedlings Grafted onto Different Cucurbita Rootstocks. Iranian Journal of Horticultural science, 41(1): 1-9. (In Persian with English Abstract)
20- Saneoka H., Moghaieb R.E.A., Premachandra G.S., and Fujita K. 2004. Nitrogen nutrition and water stress effects on cell membrane stability and leaf water relations in Agrostis palustris Huds. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 52: 131-138.
21- Scholander P.E., Hammel H.T., Bradstreet E.D., and Hemmingsen E.A. 1965. Sap pressure in vascular plant. Science, 148: 339-346.
22- Schonfield M.P., Richard J.C., Carver B.P., and Mornhi N.W. 1988. Water relations in winter wheat as drought resistance indicators. Crop Science, 28: 526-531.
23- Shi D., and Sheng Y. 2004. Effect of various salts alkaline mixed stress conditions on sunflower seedling and analysis of their stress factors. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 54: 8-21.
24- Strasser R.J., Srivastava A., and Tsimilli-Michael M. 2000. The fluorescence transient as a tool to characterize and screen photosynthetic samples. Photosynthesis Research, 94: 445-483.
25- Strasser R.J., Tsimilli-Michael M., and Srivastava A. 2004. Analysis of the Chlorophyll a Fluorescence Transient. In: Papageorgiou G.C., Govindjee (eds) Chlorophyll a Fluorescence. Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration, vol 19. Springer, Dordrecht.
26- Weatherley P.E. 1950. Studies in the water relations of the cotton plant. I. The field measurement of water deficits in leaves. New Phytolgist, 49: 81-97.
27- Yetisir H., and Uygur V. 2009. Plant growth and mineral element content of different gourd species and watermelon under salinity stress. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 33(1): 65-77.