Investigation of Application of Humic Acid on Nutrient Uptake and Quantitative and Qualitative Indices in Kiwifruit

Document Type : Research Article


University of Mohaghegh Ardabili


Introduction: Kiwifruit (Actinidia Sp) is one of the fruits that it is considered as an appropriate food source, because it is rich in vitamins, especially vitamins c, E, A, B1 and also in the form of potassium. Humic substances are contained nutrients that improve the soil nutrients and are increases the availability of food and therefore plant growth and yield. Studies have shown that adding certain amount of humic acid fertilizer can improve the growth of root, stem and leaves of plants and enhances yield and quality of products and increases the efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer consumption. According to pervious findings, recent research was performed aimed to achieving the best combination of humic acid and its application method for improving yield and organic fruits production in Kiwifruit cv. Hyvard.
Materials and methods: In order to investigate the effects of humic acid concentration and application method on nutrient uptake and quality and quantity of fruit indices, of Kiwifruit CV Hyvard an experiment based on complete block design with four replications was conducted during 2015-2016 in Talesh city, Gilan province. Experimental treatments included soil drenching method and foliar spraying of different levels (control, 2, 4 and 6 kg. ha-1) of humic acid. In this study traits such as absorption indexes of nutrient elements consisting nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, zinc, magnesium, manganese, copper and iron content of leaves and quantitative and qualitative traits of fruit (yield, Tissue firmness, vitamin C, total soluble solids of fruits and leaf area and leaf chlorophyll content) were measured. Phosphorus was measured by spectrophotometer at 430 nm and potassium was measured by flame photometer. Atomic absorption was used to determine the amount of calcium (at wavelength of 422.7 nm) and magnesium (at wavelength of 285.2 nm). Nitrogen was also measured by Kjeldahl method. Micro elements were determined by flame atomic absorption method. Standard samples and treatments were cloudy with a blue acetylene flame and the adsorption of iron, manganese, zinc and copper were read at wavelengths of 243/3, 288.5, 213.9, 327.7 nm, respectively. This study was carried out in a randomized complete block design with seven treatments (0%) and application of humic acid at concentrations of 2, 4, 6 kg.ha-1 as spraying on leaves and soil application on Hayward cultivar with four replications. Data from this study were analyzed by using Jmp statistical software and graphs were drawn using Excel 2013 software.
Results and Discussion: Results of analysis of variance showed that different concentration of humic acid had significant effect on nutrient uptake and quality and quantity of fruit indices at 1% probability level. Results of this research indicated that using of humic acid caused increasing in nutrient elements uptake and improving the quality and quantity of fruit in Hyvard cv. of Kiwifruit. Comparison of means showed that the highest value of nitrogen (1.8%) of foliar application of 2 kg.ha-1 and 4 kg.ha-1 to soil of humic acid, phosphorus (0.3%) obtained by foliar application of 2 and 4 kg.ha-1, calcium (3.5%) by foliar and soil application of 4 kg.ha-1. The highest value of potassium (1.92) with soil application of 6 kg.ha-1, manganese (0.33%) and copper (12.8 Mg.Kg Dw-1) of foliar application of 4 kg.ha-1,iron (226 Mg.Kg Dw-1) of soil application 6 kg.ha-1 humic acid and the highest value of magnesium (34.7 Mg.Kg Dw-1) uptake index obtained from adding 6 kg.ha-1 humic acid to soil. The results indicated that foliar spraying of 2 kg.ha-1 humic acid had higher efficiency for zinc uptake (21.7 Mg.Kg Dw-1). Comparison of means showed that the lowest value of measured elements obtained in control treatment. Based on the results, the concentration of four kilograms per hectare of humic acid with soil and leaf application methods had the highest effect on quantitative and qualitative indices of kiwifruit.
Conclusion: Results showed that application of humic acid caused increasing in absorption of nutrients and improving the quality and quantity of fruit in Hyvard CV of Kiwifruit. Comparison of meanings showed that the application, soil application of 4 kg.ha-1 of humic acid, was more effective in absorption indices of nitrogen elements, phosphorus, calcium and quantitative and qualitative indices of kiwifruit. Treatment of 6 kg.ha-1 soil increased the adsorption of manganese and iron elements and soil treatment of 2 kg ha-1 humic acid had the highest absorption of magnesium. Data analysis showed that zinc and copper elements were more adsorbed in humic acid by 2 and 4 kg.ha-1 in spray application. In this study the lowest value of measured elements obtained in control trait.


1. Abbas H., Pezhman M., and Tina A. 2013. Effect of organic fertilizer and foliar application of humic acid on some quantitative and qualitative yield of pot marigold, Journal of Novel applied sciences, 4(10): 1100-1103.
2. Abdel-Salam M.M. 2016. Effect of foliar application witg humic acid and 2 antioxidant on ruby seedless grapevine, Middle East Journal of Agriculture Research, 5(2): 123-131.
3. Abedini J. 2009. Kiwi: Physiology and technology processing industry and principles of cold storage, Tehran, Danesh Negar publication. Second Edition, (In Persian).
4. Ameri A., and Tehranifar A. 2012. Effect of humic acid on nutrient uptake and physiological characteristic Fragaria ananassa var Camarosa, Journal Biological Environ sciences, 6(16): 77-79.
5. AOAC. 1989. Official Methods of Analysis, 14th ed. Association of Official Agricultural Chemist, Washington DC, 241-254.
6. Arnon A.N. 1967. Method of extraction of chlorophyll in the plants, Agronomy Journal, 23: 112-121.
7. Asgharzade A., and Babaeian M. 2012. Ivestigating the effects of humic acid and acetic acid foliar application on yield and leaves nutrient content of grape (vitis vinifera), African Journal of Microbiology Research, 6(31): 6049-6054.
8. Aydin A., Turan M., and Sezen Y. 1999. Effect of fulvic and humic application on yield nutrient uptake in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and corn (zea mays). Soil Scienc, 6: 249-252.
9. Bakhshandeh A., Soltani A., and Ghadirian. 2011. Leaf area index measurement by AccuPAR instrument in wheat, Journal of Plant Production Research. (18)4: 97-102. (In Persian with English abstract).
10. Baldi E., Toselli M., Eissenstat D.M., and Marangoni B. 2010. Organic fertilization leads to increased peach root production and lifespan. Tree Physology, 30: 1373-1382.
11. Cavalcante I.H.L., DaSilva R.R.S., Albano F.G., DeLima F.N., and Marques D.S.2011. Foliar spray of humic acid on seedling production of papava (pawpaw), Journal of Agronomy, 10(4): 118-122.
12. Chintzier Mand H., and Schulten R. 1998. New ideas on the chemical make-up of soil humic and fulvic acids, In: Huang P.M., (Ed.), Future Prospects for Soil Chemistry, Soil Science Society of America, Madison: 155–178
13. Delfine S., Tognetti R., and Desiderio E. 2005. Effect of foliar application of N and humic acids on growth and yield of durum wheat, Agronomy Sustain, 25: 183-191.
14. El-Boray M.S.S., Mostafa M.F.M. 2015. Effect of humic acid and fluvic acids with some nutrient at diffrenet time of aoolication on yield and fruits quality of anna apple trees, Journal of Plant Production, 6(3): 307-321.
15. El-Nemr M. A., El-Desuki M., El-Bassiony A. M., and FawzyZ. F. 2012. Response of growth and yield of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.) to different foliar applications of humic acid and bio-stimulators, Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 6(3): 630-637.
16. Fagbenro J.A., and Agboola, A.A. 1993. Effect of different levels of humic acid on the growth and nutrient uptake of teak seedlings, Journal of Plant Nutr, 16(8): 1465-1483.
17. Fallahi E., Fallahi B., and Seyedbagheri M. 2006. Infuence of humic substance and nitrogen on yield, fruit quality, and leaf mineral elements of early spur Rome apple, Journal of Plant Nutrition, 29: 1819-1833.
18. Fathi M.A., Gabr M.A., and El Shall SA. 2010. Effect of humic acid treatment on Canino apricot growth yield and fruit quality. New York Science, 3: 212-225.
19. Ferrara G., Brunetti G. 2010. Effects of the times of application of a soil humic acid on berry quality of table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Italia, Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 8(3): 817-822.
20. Fernandez–Escobar R., Benlloch M., Barranco D., Duenas A., and Guterrez Ganan J.A. 1996. Response of olive trees to foliar application of humic substance extracted from leonardite, Scintia Horticulturae. 66: 191-200.
21. Grossl P. R., and Inskeep W.P. 1991. Precipitation of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate in the presence of organic acids, Soil Science Society of America Journal, 55: 670-675.
22. Hagagg L.F., Shahin M.F.M., Mustafa N.S., and Mervad M.A. 2013. Influence of using humic acid during full bloom and fruit set stages on productivity and fruit quality of Kalamata olive trees, Journal of Applied Science Research, 9(3): 2287-2292.
23. Haghighi M., Kafi M., and Fang P. 2012. Photosynthetic activity and N metabolism of lettuce as affected by humic acid, International Journal of Vegetable Science, 18: 182-189.
24. Ho M. M., Burcher S., and ching L. L. 2008. Food futures now, ISIS TWN Report. P. 2,,php, Accessed on April 3. 2016.
25. James B., Rodel D., Lorettu U., Reynaldo E., and Tariq H. 2008. Effect of vesicular arbescular mycorrhiza (VAM) fungi inoculation on coppicing ability and drought resistance of Senna Spectabilis, Pakistan Journal of Botany, 40(5): 2217-2224.
26. Javanshah A., and Nasab A.N. 2016.The effecy of humic acid and calcium on morpho-physiological trait and mineral nutrient uptake of pistachio seedling under salinity stress, Journal of Nuts, 7(2): 1-11.
27. Khadem Dalir F. 2017. Effect of humic acid at Different Levels of Nitrogen on mineral nutrient uptake in Strawberry, Thesis M.Sc, Department of Horticultural science – Pomology, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili.83pp.
28. Mohamadineia G.H., Hosseini S., Farahi M., and DastyaranM. 2015. Foliar and soil drench application of humic acid on yield and berry propertices of askari grapevine, Aricultural Communications Journal, 3(2): 21-27.
29. Moraditochaee M. 2012. Effectsof Humic Acid Folior Sprayingand nitrogen fertilizer management on yield of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in Iran, ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science, 7(4): 289-293.
30. Motighi h. 2009. Kiwi. Tehran, Soroush Hedayat Publication. Page 72. ( In Persian)
31. Nardi S., Pizzeghello D., Muscolo A., and Vianello A. 2002. Physiological effects of humic substances on higher plants, Soil Biochem, 34(11): 1527-1536.
32. Ngullie C.R., Tank V.R., and Bhanderi D.R. 2014. Effect of salicylic acid and humic acid on flowering, fruiting, yield and quality of mango (Mangifera indica CV KESAR, Hind Agricultural Research and Training Institute, 5(2): 136-139.
33. Payton F. V. 1990. The effect of nitrogen fertilizer on the growth and development of the potato in warm tropics: Dissertation abstract international, the sciences and engineering, 50(9): 33-71.
34. Prakash P., Samundeeswari R., Navaneethan G., Padmaja P., Ramakrishnan B., and Chatterjee A. 2013. Influence of potassium humate on Morus alba and analysis their nutrients content, International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research. 3(6): 1-6.
35. Rauthan B.S., and Schnitzer M. 1981. Effects of soil fulvic acid on the growth and nutrient content of cucumber (Cucumus sativus) plants, Plant Soil, 63: 491-495.
36. Rostami M. 2016. Effecte of humic acid application methods and rates of nitrogen on vegetative, reproductive and post-harvest characteristics of strawberry fruit (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) cv. Paros. MSc Thesis. Mohaghegh Ardabili University, Ardabil, Iran (In Persian).
37. Saki Nejad T., Hossaini S., and Hyvari M. 2011. Calculate changes of bean germination process in the presence of various compounds of biological fertilizer humic acid mixed with micro and macro elements, Journal of American Science, 7(6): 1014-1020.
38. Sanchez–Sanchez A., Sanchez–Andreu J., Juarez M., Jorda J., and Bermudez D. 2006. Imporvement of iron uptake in table grape by addition of humic substancecs, Journal of Plant Nutrition, 29(2): 259-272.
39. Sanchez–Sanchez A., Sanchez–Anderu J., Juarez M., Jorda J., and Bermudez D. 2002. Humic substances and amino acid improve effectiveness of chelate FeEDDHA in Lemons trees, Journal of Plant Nutrition, 25(11): 2433-2442.
40. Shaaban F.K., Morsey M.M., and Mahmoud T.Sh.M. 2015. Influence of spraying yeast extract and humic acid on fruit maturity stage and storablitity of canino apricot fruits, International Journal of ChemTec Research, 8(6): 530-543.
41. Shiri. Rangjbar R.A., and Molkotti M.J. 2001. The effect of foliar application, nitrogen, zinc and boron on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of seedless grapes, Journal of Soil and Water Sciences, 14(12): 195-203. (In Persian with English summary)
42. Stevenson F.J. 1991. Organic matter-micronutrient reactions in soil. In: Mortvedt J.J., Cox F.R., Shuman L.M., Welch R.M. (Eds.). Micronutrients in Agriculture, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, 145-186.
43. Tana N.T., and El-Ghany K.M. 2016. Some horticultural and pathological studies to reduce fruit of anna apple and increase fruit set yield and improve fruit quality and storability, Journal of American Science, 12(1): 104-122.
44. Vaughan D., and MacDonald I.R. 1976. Some effects of humic acid on cation uptake by parenchyma tissue, Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 8: 415-421.
45. Yildirim E. 2007.Foliar and soil fertilization ofhumic acid affect productivity and quality of tomato, Acta Agriculture Scandinavia Journal, 57: 182-186.
46. Wang S. Y., and Lin S. 2002. Compost as soil supplement enhanced plant growth and fruit quality of strawberry, Journal of Plant Nutrition, 25: 2243-2259.
47. Zachariakis A., Tzorakakis E., Kritsotakis I., Siminis C.I., and Manios V. 2001. Humic substances stimulate plant growth, nutrient accumulation in grapevine rootstocks, Acta Horticulture Journal, 549: 131-136.