ارزیابی مورفولوژیک و گزینش تک درختان متحمل به تنش یخ زدگی در باغات زیتون استان گلستان

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

2 دانشگاه شیراز

3 پژوهشگاه ملی مهندسی ژنتیک و زیست فناوری

چکیده

دمای پایین از تنش‌های عمده غیر زیستی است که سبب آسیب فراوان به درختان میوه می شود. آسیب سرما به درختان همیشه سبز مانند زیتون، بیشتر از بقیه گیاهان است. به علت همیشه سبز بودن زیتون، تنش سرما اغلب در اواخر پاییز، زمستان و اوایل فصل بهار علاوه بر خسارت به محصول زیتون، در رقم های روغنی دیررس، باعث خشکیدگی شاخساره سال جاری و شاخه های چند ساله می شود. این مطالعه در سال 1395 و 1396 با هدف ارزیابی خسارت یخ زدگی از دیدگاه باغبانی و شناسایی تک درختان متحمل به تنش یخ زدگی زودرس پاییزه پس از وقوع یخبندان آذر ماه 1395در باغات زیتون شرق استان گلستان انجام شد. علائم تنش یخ زدگی در درختان زیتون با توجه به نوع رقم و ژنوتیپ، شامل خشکیدگی و ریزش برگ، ترکیدگی شاخه های یک تا چند ساله، تیرگی رنگ پوست و چوب، خروج محتویات میوه و تغییر رنگ میوه بلافاصله بعد از تنش یخ زدگی تا هفت ماه بعد از تنش مطالعه شد. در ابتدا 218 تک درخت زیتون که نسبت به سرما از خود تحمل نشان داده بودند شناسایی و مجددا یک ماه، چهار ماه و هفت ماه بعد از تنش مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. در نهایت، تعداد 58 اصله درخت زیتون متحمل به سرما در باغات مختلف شناسایی و از نظر صفات مکانی، عملکردی و مورفولوژیک بررسی شدند. برخی از این درختان در مناطق مختلف، الگوهای رفتاری مشابهی نسبت به تنش یخ زدگی نشان دادند و با تحقیقات تکمیلی می توان امیدوار بود از بین درختان شناسایی شده، ارقام متحمل به سرما با عملکرد قابل قبول معرفی گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Morphological Evaluation and Selection of Tolerant Trees to Freezing Stress at The Olive Orchards in Golestan Province

نویسندگان [English]

  • issa keramatlou 1
  • Saeid Navabpour 1
  • Khalil Zainilnejad 1
  • Elahe Tavakol 2
  • Mehdi Hosseini Mazinani 3
1 Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences & Natural Resources
2 Shiraz University
3 National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Low temperature is one of the major abiotic stresses which can cause a significant reduction in olive growth and productivity mainly at late autumn, winter and early spring. Although olive is moderately freezing tolerant, temperatures below a certain threshold -7oC can damage the plant, while at -12oC damage may be serious enough to threaten the life of the tree. Different cultivars of olives have diverse reactions to cold stress and so, the selection of cold resistant cultivars is the most effective method to avoid frost damages. First step to achieve this goal, is indentifying tolerant cultivar and genotypes in olive area growing. Due to extensive and high freezing damage in November 2016, the objective of the present study was to evaluate morphological characteristics and selection of single -tolerant cold trees.
Materials and Methods
The present study was carried out in some cold tolerant olives after freezing event in December 2016 in Eastern region of Golestan province of Iran. After freezing stress Healthy olive trees were identified in tow major olive cultivation regions and then were evaluated in four stages. Thus, this study included: 1- Meteorological data analysis, 2- Evaluation of freezing stress symptoms in olive orchards and identification of single tolerant trees, 3-stugy of single tolerant cold trees in 4 stages. For each genotype, studies on morphological traits (Tree age, location altitude, dip direction and its percentage, previous yield, tree height, canopy height, average of canopy diameter, canopy volume, canopy surface area, trunk perimeter, trunk diameter, trunk cross section area, length of internodes, growth habit, canopy density, canopy defoliation, barksplit ranging, flowering and fruit set) based on CFC / IOOC / 03 and Lodolini et al. (2016) results.
Results and Discussion
History of cold climate in the last two decades showed freezing event several times cause damage to olive orchards. The last freezing stress occurred with the entrance of the cold air to the Golestan province and a sudden drop in temperature to less than 0 degrees Celsius and stability of these conditions for 5-days in the late of November, 2016. The temperature drops below 0 ° C began on November 23 and lasts for 4-days. However, the main damage to the olive orchards is on November 25, when temperature is - 7 ° C. The minimum temperature recorded in the studied regions in November 25, Maravehtapeh, Gonbad, Kalaleh and Minoudasht are -14.2, -12.7, -12.3 and -8.5 ° C, respectively. Symptoms of freezing damage on olive tree can range from shoot tip burns and defoliation up to bark split on branches or trunk. After 4 stages visiting olive orchards, Finally, from 218 primary individual trees, 58 trees were introduced for further evaluation. Location altitude (meters above sea level) of the idividual trees are 81-411 in the CTO-17 and CTO-5 genotypes, respectively. Generally, 93% of all trees identified in sloping land orchards, and the Percentage variation for this trait is 48. 99. Fruit production of selected olives before freezing event in 2016 showed except of 13 trees, 44 of olives was of 2-60 kg/tree. Tree height was 2-6.82 in CTO-35 and CTO-17 genotypes, respectively. However, average of canopy diameter in all genotypes was 2.68. Also, trunk diameter (TD) and trunk cross section area (TCSA) was maximum in CTO-29 and minimum in CTO-9. But the average of this trait was 17.13 cm. Variation between genotype in internode length changed between 1.05 in CTO-20 and 16.2 in the CTO-49. Reduction of internode spaces and shoot growth, even though the total node number is normal resistance of the olive tree to cold is reduced. Leaf defoliation is one of the most important symptoms of freezing event. The study of selected trees showed that 48 trees (83%) did not showed symptoms of leaf loss, and only 10 trees showed less than 50% leaf loss. Except for the CTO-54 genotype, which showed symptoms of bark spliting on one-year shoots, no evidence of bark spliting observed in other selected olives.
Conclusions
Although olive is the most cold-hardy of the subtropical fruit trees, some varieties can withstand low temperatures better than the other. Although temperatures at which olive trees can be damaged vary, depending on climatic conditions, temperatures at or below -7°C are often critical. The most important symptoms were leaf defoliation, bark split, and limb dieback. Finally, because of different influence of environmental factor in different regions, evaluation of location, yield and morphological traits showed some of cold tolerant olive in different region had a similar behavior, thus by supplementary molecular studies, it can be hoped that among recognized trees, cold resistant cultivars with acceptable yields were introduced.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Olive
  • Freezing stress
  • early cold
  • morphological trait
Alfei B., Cavezza G., Santinelli A., and Panelli G. 1999. Osservazioni sulcomportamento agronomico di alcune varietà autoctone ed alloctone di olivonelle Marche (Agronomic behaviour of native and non-native olive varieties of the Marche Region-Italy). In: Atti V Convegno Nazionale Biodiversità: Biodiversità e Sistemi Ecocompatibili, 9–10 Sept. 1999, Caserta, Italy.
2- Antognozzi E., Famiani F., Proietti P., Pannelli G., and Alfei B. 1994. Frost resistance of some olive cultivars during the winter, Acta Horticulturae, 356:152–155.
3- Antognozzi E., Pilli M., Proietti P., and Romani F. 1990. Analysis of some factors affecting frost resistance in olive trees. p. 4280. In: Proceedings 23rd International Horticultural Congress, Aug 30. 1990. Firenze, Italy.
4- Arias N.S., Bucci S.J., Scholz F.G., and Goldstein, G. 2015. Freezing avoidance by supercooling in Olea europaea cultivars: the role of apoplastic water solute content and cell wall rigidity, Plant, Cell & Environment, 38: 2061–2070.
5- Asadi-Sanam S., Pirdashti H., Hashempour A., Nematzadeh G.A., and Yaghoubian Y. 2014. The physiological and biochemical responses of eastern purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L.) to freezing stress, Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, 62: 515–523.
6- Auslander A., Nevo E., and Inbar M. 2002. The effects of slope orientation on plant growth, developmental instability and susceptibility to herbivores, Journal of Arid Environments, 55:405–416.
7- Azzarello E., Mugnai S., Pandolfi C., Masi E., Marone E., and Mancuso S. 2009. Comparing image (fractal analysis) and electrochemical (impedance spectroscopy and electrolyte leakage) techniques for the assessment of the freezing tolerance in olive, Structure and Function, 23:159–167.
8- Barranco D., Ruiz N., and Gomez-del Campo M. 2005. Frost tolerance of eight olive cultivars, HortScience, 40(3):558–560.
9- Bower A.D., and Aitken S.N. 2006. Geographic and seasonal variation in cold hardiness of whitebark pine, Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 36:1842–1850.
10- Charrier G., Ngao J., Saudreau M., and Ameglio T. 2015. Effects of environmental factors and management practices on microclimate, winter physiology, and frost resistance in trees, Frontiers in plant science, 6(259).
11- Chinnusamy V., Zhu J., and Zhu J.K. 2006. Gene regulation during cold acclimation in plants. Physiologia Plantarum, 126:52–61.
12- Cimato A., and Attilio C. 2008. Conservation, characterization, collection and utilization of the genetic resources in olive, Technical paper (CFC/IOOC/03).
13- Clements, J. 2014. Cold injury to fruit trees (well, with an emphasis on tender fruit), Ontario Fruit & Vegetable Conference, 19-20 Feb. 2014. Ontario, Canada.
14- Connor D.J., and Fereres E. 2005. The physiology of adaptation and yield expression in olive, Horticultural Reviews, 31:155–229.
15- Coopman R.E., Jara J.C., Escobar R., Corcuera L. J., and Bravo L. A. 2010. Genotypic variation in morphology and freezing resistance of Eucalyptus globulus seedlings subjected to drought hardening in nursery, Electronic Journal of Biotechnology, 13(1): 5-6.
16- D'Angeli S. and Altamura M.M. 2007. Osmotin induces cold protection in olive trees by affecting programmed cell death and cytoskeleton organization, Planta, 225: 1147–1163.
17- Denney J.O., Martin G.C., Kammereck R., Ketchie D.O., Connell J.H., Krueger W.H., Osgood J.W., Sibbett G.S., and Nour G.A. 1993. Some olives show damage; many, coldhardiness, California Agriculture, 47:2–12.
18- Fiorino P., and Mancuso S. 2000. Differential thermal analysis, deep supercooling and cell viability in organs of Olea europaea at subzero temperatures, Advances in Horticultural Science, 19:23–27.
19- Gomez-del-Campo M., and Barranco D. 2005. Field evaluation of frost tolerance in 10 olive cultivars, Plant Genetic Resources, 3:385-390.
20- Guerriero R., Vitagliano C., Bartolini S., and Andreoni N. 1988. La selezione clonale della cultivar “Leccino”: osservazioni su 31 presunti cloni nel campo di comparazione della Maremma Toscana, Atti del Convegno Olive da Tavola, Ascoli Piceno.
21- Gulen H., Cansev A., and Eris A. 2009. Cold hardiness of olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars in cold-acclimated and non-acclimated stages: seasonal alteration of soluble sugars and phospholipids, Journal of Agricultural Science, 147:459–467.
22- Hashempour A., Ghasemnezhad M., Fotouhi Ghazvini R. and Sohani M.M. 2014. The physiological and biochemical responses to freezing stress of olive plants treated with salicylic acid, Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, 61: 443–450.
23- Hashempour A., Ghasemnezhad M., Sohani M.M., Fotouhi Ghazvini R. and Abedi A. 2019. Effects of Freezing Stress on the Expression of Fatty Acid Desaturase (FAD2, FAD6 and FAD7) and Beta-Glucosidase (BGLC) Genes in Tolerant and Sensitive Olive Cultivars, Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, 1-9.
24- Kailis S., and Harris D. 2007. Producing Table Olives, Landlinks press, Collingwood.
25- Kaya O., and Kose S. 2017. Determination of resistance to low temperatures of winter buds on lateral shoot present in Karaerik (Vitis vinifera L.) grape, Acta Physiol Plant, 39:209.
26- La Porta N., Zacchini M., Bartolini S., Viti R., and Roselli G. 1994. The frost hardiness of some clones of olive cv. Leccino, Journal of Horticultural Science, 69(3):433–435.
27- Larcher W. 1970. Okophysiologie der Pflanzen, Oecologia Plantarum, 5:267–286.
28- Lodolini E.M., Alfei B., Santinelli A., Cioccolanti T., Polverigiani S., and Neri D. 2016. Frost tolerance of 24 olive cultivars and subsequent vegetativere-sprouting as indication of recovery ability, Scientia Horticulturae, 211:152–157.
29- Mancuso S. 2000. Electrical resistance changes during exposure to low temperature measure chilling in freezing tolerance in olive tree (Olea europaea L.) plants, Plant, Cell and Environment, 23:291–299.
30- Morin X., Ameglio T., Ahas R., Kurz-besson C., Lanta V., Lebourgeois F., Miglietta F., and Chuine I. 2007. Variation in cold hardiness and carbohydrate concentration from dormancy induction to bud burst among provenances of three European oak species, Tree Physiology, 27: 817–825.
31- Morris R., and Crites A.M. 2007. Freeze damage to plants in lower elevations of Southern Nevada, Nevada Cooperative Extension, 1-10.
32- Mousavi S., Arzani K., Hosseini-Mazinani M., and Yadollahi A. 2015. Responses of Commercial Olive Cultivars (Olea europaea L.) to Cold Stress Using Electrolyte Leakage Method and Measuring Total Soluble Carbohydrate, Journal of Crop Production and Processing, 5(16) :85-95. (in Persian).
33- Noori O., Arzani K., Moameni A., and Taheri M. 2015. Vegetative growth and fruit set of olive (Olea europaea L. cv. ‘Zard’) in response to some soil and plant factors, Journal of Central European Agriculture, 16(3).
34- Palliotti A., and Bongi G. 1996. Freezing injury in the olive leaf and effects of mefluidide treatment, Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 71:57-63.
35- Poirier M., Lacointe A., and Ameglio T. 2010. A semi-physiological model of cold hardening and dehardening in walnut stem, Tree Physiology, 30:1555–1569.
36- Rahemi M., Yazdani F., and Sedaghat S. 2016. Evaluation of freezing tolerance in olive cultivars by stomatal density and freezing stress, International Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, 3(2):145-153.
37- Reddick, L. 2009. Identification and prevention of frost or freeze damage, Arizona Cooperative extension, 1-6. Available at https://cals.arizona.edu/mohave/ master_gardeners /kingman/articles/frostorfreeze.pdf (visited 5 May 2018).
38- Roselli G., and Venora G. 1990. Relationship between stomatal size and winter hardiness in the olive, Acta Horticulturae, 286:89–92.
39- Roselli G., Benelli G., and Morelli D. 1989. Relationship between stomatal density and winter hardiness in olive (Olea europaea L.), Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology, 64:199–203.
40- Roselli G., La Porta N., and Morelli D. 1992. Valutazioni del germoplasma di olivo per la tolleranza a stress da freddo Atti Convegno Germoplasma Frutticolo, Alghero, Italy.
41- Ruiz N., Barranco D., and Rapoport H.F. 2006. Anatomical response of olive (Olea europaea L.) to freezing temperatures, Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology, 81(5):783–790.
42- Schreiber S.G., Hamann A., Hacke U.G., and Thomas B.R. 2013. Sixteen years of winter stress: an assessment of cold hardiness, growth performance and survival of hybrid poplar clones at a boreal planting site, Plant, Cell and Environment, 36:419-429.
43- Simkeshzadeh N., Mobli M., Etemadi N., and Bani Nasab B. 2011. Evaluation of cold tolerance in some olive cultivars by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence and morphological injuries, Journal of Horticultural Science, 24(2):163-169. (in Persian).
44- Snyder R.L., and de Melo-Abreu J.P. 2005. Frost Protection: fundamentals, practice and economics, Vol. 1, Environmental and Natural Resouces Series, FAO, Rome.
45- Stephan J. M., Teeny P. W., Vessella F., and Schirone B. 2018. Oak morphological traits: between taxa and environmental variability, Flora, 243:32-44.
46- Synoptic station in Minudasht. 2017. Statistics, Minudasht, Iran.
47- Wisniewski M., Carole B., and Gusta L.V. 2003. An overview of cold hardiness in woody plants: seeing the forest through the trees, Hortscience, 38:952–959.
48- Xin Z., and Browse J. 2000. Cold comfort farm: the acclimation of plants to freezing temperatures, Plant, Cell & Environment, 23:893–902.
49- Zekri M., Oswalt C., Futch S. and Hurner L. 2016. Freeze damage symptoms and recovery for citrus, Citrus Industry (December), 18-21.