The Impact of Sudden Low Temperature Stress of rRoot and Shoot on the Recovery of some of Vegetative and Physiological Traits of Tomato in the Presence of Boron

Document Type : Research Article


Isfahan of Technology University


Introduction: Most plants, especially those that are native to hot areas, show signs of injury when exposed to low temperatures. Damages caused by cold stress occurs at the cell and organs level, which reflects it at the plant surface. Color change, chlorosis, general reduction of growth, cellular tissue destruction, non-absorption of nutrients, reduction of photosynthesis, non-transferring photosynthetic materials are from early effects of cold stress. Cellular responses to colds including loss of thoracic pressure, vacuolization, collapse of cytoplasmic membrane balance, cytoplasmic flow loss, and general organ dysfunction. The susceptibility of the plant to frost is different depending on the type of plant, variety, tissue morphology and other cellular characteristics, as well as the cold conditions of the period, time and cold intensity. In addition, it seems that organs of the plant have different degrees of cold tolerance. If the temperature of the aerial part is favorable, the low temperature of the root zone can be one of the factors limiting the root system and plant growth. The consumption of balanced boron content by neutralizing the negative effects of cold stress and mechanisms such as maintaining the structure of the membrane, improving and increasing root growth, increasing the synthesis of proteins needed for the plant, adjustment of stomatal movements and improved stomatal conductance, increased cell division, increased nitrogen metabolism and chlorophyll production, and its consequence was increased photosynthesis and dry matter production, increased activity of antioxidants, calcium / potassium ratio adjustment, optimizing the transfer of calcium in the plant, adjusting the amount of water and conducting it in the cell, increasing the moisture content and relative content of leaf water, transferring soluble materials and increasing water use efficiency creates a relative resistance to low temperature stress. Although the root temperature is very effective in plant growth, it has been less attractive. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low temperature of root and shoot on the ability to restore plant growth and physiological activity in the presence and absence of boron.
Materials and Methods: In order to compare the impact of sudden low temperature stress of root and shoot on recovery of vegetative and physiological traits of tomato, a research was conducted in two separate experiments under controlled conditions in the greenhouse of Faculty of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology. Two experiments were factorial based on completely randomized design with 10 replications including two concentrations of boron (0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 in ppm) and two temperature levels of shoot and root sections (10 degrees’ Celsius temperature, and 11 rootstock temperatures and 22 ° C optimum and control temperatures). Indicators included photosynthesis rate, respiration rate, stomatal carbon dioxide, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll fluorescence, chlorophyll index, water use efficiency, proline, antioxidant, phenol secretion from root and leaf extracts, leaf relative water content, soluble protein concentration, ion leakage, leaf water potential, root and shoot dry weights and starch content. Finally, the analysis of the results was done by statistical software statistic and comparing the meanings by LSD test at 5% level.
Result and discussion: The results showed that the highest amount of photosynthesis, root dry weight and dry weight of the aerial part were in the consumption of 0.5 ppm of boron during abrupt stresses of low temperature on the root after the recovery period. The highest amount of stem proline and electrolyte leakage were also obtained from 0.5-1.5 ppm of boron consumption during abrupt low temperature on the shoot part. According to the results, it was found that when stress has entered from the root zone to the aerial part of the plant, the plant was in the better conditions after the recovery period. It seems that when a cold stress occurred on the roots, the plant can produced more antioxidant substances, including phenol and proline, while counteracting the relative water content of the leaves were more effective with radical agents. Thus, in normal conditions, the roots of the plant operated at a lower temperature than the airspace. They also exhibited more adaptations to the lower air at the lower temperature than the air section and the plant is less damaged. At levels above the boron element due to the effect of boron toxicity and the production of excess free oxygen radicals, the plant probably suffered more severe damage than cold damage.
Conclusions: Sudden low temperatures stresses on the root and shoot had negative effects on the recovery of the vegetative and physiological traits of tomatoes. When lower temperatures were imposed on the shoot, the plant suffered much more damages. Consumption of 0.5 ppm of boron during cold stress by creating optimal conditions for growth also caused the relative neutralization.


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  • Receive Date: 28 November 2017
  • Revise Date: 03 December 2018
  • Accept Date: 10 June 2019
  • First Publish Date: 20 February 2020