Effects of Gamma-aminobutyric Acid Treatment on Postharvest Chilling Injury on Tomato Fruit

Document Type : Research Article

Authors

1 Zanjan University

2 Imam Khomeini International

Abstract

Introduction: In recent years, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a non-proteinogenic four-carbon signaling amino acid, has been employed as a safe strategy for attenuating chilling injury and fungal decay, delaying senescence and keeping sensory and nutritional quality of fruits and vegetables during postharvest life. In addition to applying GABA as exogenous safe procedure, heightening cellular GABA shunt pathway activity also is pivotal for attenuating chilling injury and fungal decay, delaying senescence and keeping sensory and nutritional quality of fruits and vegetables during postharvest life. Low temperature storage is widely employed for prolonging postharvest life of fruits and vegetables accompanying by keeping sensory and nutritional quality. Tomato is one of the most important horticultural crops, which exhibits higher benefits for human health but being endemic to subtropical climates, they are very vulnerable to chilling injury. Cold storage application is normally employed as a regular low-cost real postharvest technology. Owing to its great socio-economic significance, great efforts have been done by researchers to attenuating chilling injury in tomato fruits during low temperature storage employing safe strategies such as melatonin, brassinosteroids, salicylic acid, nitric oxide, and gibberellic acid. Attenuating chilling injury in tomato fruits by postharvest treatments may attribute to keeping safe membrane integrity representing by lower electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation occurring by eliciting endogenous polyamines, proline and nitric oxide accumulation by activating CBF1 signaling pathway, hampering phospholipase D (PLD) and lipoxygenase (LOX) enzymes activity, activating reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging enzymes activity resulting in higher ascorbic acid and glutathione accumulation, maintaining endogenous GA3 homeostasis occurring by higher CBF1 signaling pathway concurrent with higher endogenous salicylic acid accumulation, which not only are pivotal for conferring chilling tolerance in tomato fruits but also are crucial for preserving sensory and nutritional quality.
Material and Methods: Tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Izmir) were picked at the mature green stage in Zanjan Province, Iran, and transported to the fruit analysis laboratory at Zanjan University. In the laboratory, the fruit was screened for uniform size, maturity, and absence of mechanical damage. Fruits (1440) were divided into four groups, each consisting of 360 fruits. The experiment was done in triplicate in which each replicate consisted of 120 fruits. The exogenous GABA applying was done by immersing of fruits in GABA at 0, 0.1, 1, and 5 mM for 15 min at 20 ˚C. Then, fruits were air dried at room temperature and stored at 4 ± 0.5 ºC (85–90 % RH) for 28 days. After assessment of chilling injury every 7 days during storage at 4 ˚C followed by shelf life at 25 ºC for 3 days, biochemical analyses were performed.
Results and Discussion: In recent experiment, we showed that the exogenous GABA applying, especially at 5 mM, is beneficial for attenuating chilling injury in tomato fruits during storage at 4 ºC for 28 days which was associated with higher membrane integrity representing by lower electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation. Keeping safe membrane integrity in tomato fruits in response to exogenous GABA applying may ascribe to triggering reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) enzymes activity giving rise to higher endogenous ascorbic acid accumulation concomitant with promoting phenylpropanoid pathway activity representing by higher phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) enzyme activity giving rise to higher phenols and flavonoids accumulation and superior DPPH scavenging capacity.
Conclusion: Therefore, exogenous application of GABA not only is proficient for attenuating chilling injury but also is beneficial for preserving nutritional quality of tomato fruits during storage at 4 ºC for 28 days.

Keywords


1- Ali A., Maqbool M.G., Alderson P., and Zahid N. 2013. Effect of gum arabic as an edible coating on antioxidant capacity of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruit during storage. Postharvest Biology and Technology 76: 119–124.
2- Arena E., Fallico A. and Maccarone E. 2001. Evalution of antioxidant capacity of blood orange juice as influenced by constituents concentrate. Food Chemistry 74: 423-427.
3- Asghari M.R. and Aghdam M.S. 2010. Impact of salicylic acid on post-harvest physiology of horticultural crops. Trends Food Science Technology 21: 502-509.
4- Bolarin M.C., Santa-Cruz A., Cayuela E., and Perez-Alfocea F. 1995. Short-term solute changes in leaves and roots of cultivated and wild tomato seedlings under salinity. Journal of Plant Physiology 147: 463–468.
5- Cantwell M.I., and Kasmire R.F. 2002. Postharvest Handling Systems: Fruit Vegetables, In: Kader, A. A. (Ed.), Postharvest Technology of Horticultural Crops. University of California, Agriculture and Nature Resources, Davis 407–423.
6- Deewatthanawong R., Rowell P. and Watkins C.B. 2010. γ -Aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism in CO2 treated tomatoes. Postharvest Biology and Technology 57: 97-105.
7- Dehghan G., and Khoshkam Z. 2012. Tin (11)-quercetin complex: Synthesis, spectral characterization and antioxidant activity. Food Chemistry 131: 422-426.
8- Dhindsa R.S., and Thrope T.A. 1981. Leaf senescence: correlated with increased levels of membrane permeability and lipid peroxidation, and decreased levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Journal of Experimental Botany 32: 93-101.
9- Ding C.K., Wang C.Y., Gross K.C., and Smith D.L. 2002. Jasmonate and salicylate induce the expression of pathogenesis-related-protein genes and increase resistance to chilling injury in tomato fruit. Planta 214: 895–901.
10- Dixon R.A., and Paiva N. 1995. Stress-induced phenylpropanoid metabolism. The Plant Cell 7(7): 1085–1097.
11- Du G., Li M., Ma F., and Liang D. 2009. Antioxidant capacity and the relationship with polyphenol and Vitamin C in Actinidia fruits. Food Chemistry 113: 557-562.
12- Fabro G., Kovacs I., Pavet V., Szabados L., and Alvarez M.E. 2004. Proline accumulation and AtP5CS2 gene activation are induced by plant pathogen incompatible interactions in Arabidopsis. Mol. Plant–Microbe Interact 17: 343–350.
13- Galvez A.B, Garcia M.V., Corrales J.C., Lopez A.C., and Valenzuela J.A.L. 2010. Effect of gradual cooling storage on chilling injury and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity in tomato fruit. Journal Food Biochemistry 34: 295–307.
14- Heath R., and Packer L. 1968. Photo peroxidation in isolated chloroplasts, Kinetics and stoichiometry of fatty acid peroxidation. Archives of Biochemistry and Biology Physiology 125: 189-198.
15- Hsu Y.M., Lai C.H., Chang C.Y., Fan C.T., and Chen C. T. 2008. Characterizing the lipid lowering effects and antioxidant mechanisms of tomato paste. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 72: 677-685.
16- Hu X., Xu Z., Xu W., Li J., Zhao N., and Zhou, Y. 2015. Application of γ-aminobutyric acid demonstrates a protective role of polyamine and GABA metabolism in muskmelon seedlings under Ca(NO3)2 stress. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 92: 1-10.
17- Jalilimarandi R. 2004. Postharvest Physiology (Handling and storage of fruits, vegetables and ornamental plants). Publishers Jihad Urmia University. Second edition, p. 276. [In Farsi]
18- Jiang Y., and Huang B. 2001. Drought and heat stress injury to two cool-season turf grasses in relation to antioxidant metabolism and lipid peroxidation. Crop Science 41(2): 436-442.
19- Kaijv M., Sheng L., and Chao C. 2006. Antioxidation of flavonoids of Green Rhizome. Food Science and Technology 27: 110–115.
20- Kathiresan A., Miranda J., Chinnappa C., and Reid DM. 1998. Γ-Aminobutyric acid promotes growth elongation in Stellaria longipes: the role of ethylene. Plant Growth Regulation 26: 131-137.
21- Lafuente M.T., Zacarias L., Martinez-Tellez M.A., Sanchez-Ballesta, M.T., and Granell A. 2003. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and ethylene in relation to chilling injury as affected by fruit age in citrus. Postharvest Biology and Technology 29(3): 309–318.
22- Lu X., Sun D., Li Y., Shi W., and Sun G. 2011. Pre- and post- harvest salicylic acid treatments alleviate internal browning and maintain quality of winter pineapple fruit. Scientia Horticulturae 130: 97–101.
23- Mittler R. 2002. Oxidative stress, antioxidants and stress tolerance. Trends Plant Science 7: 405–410.
24- Nayyar H., Kaur R., Kaur S., and Singh R. 2014. γ - Aminobutyric acid (GABA) imparts partial protection from heat stress injury to rice seedlings by improving leaf turgor and upregulating osmoprotectans and antioxidants. Journal Plant Growth Regulation 33(2): 408-419.
25- Pan Y., Wu L., and Yu Z. 2006. Effect of salt and drought stress on antioxidant enzymes activities and SOD isoenzymes of liquorice. Glycyrriza uralensis Fisch. Plant Growth Regulation 301: 564-571.
26- Paull R.E. 1990. Chilling injury of crops of tropical and subtropical origin, In: Wang, C. Y. (Ed.), Chilling injury of horticultural crops. CRC Press, Boca Raton FL, pp. 17–36.
27- Shang H., Cao S., Yang Z., Cai Y., and Zheng Y. 2011. Effect of exogenous gamma aminobutyric acid treatment on proline accumulation and chilling injury in peach fruit after long-term cold storage. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 59(4): 1264–1268.
28- Shelp B., Bown A., and McLean M. 1999. Metabolism and functions of gamma-aminobutyric acid. Elsevier. Trends in plant science, 446-452.
29- Shi S.Q., Shi Z., Jiang Z.P., Qi L.W., Sun X.M., Li C. X. et al. 2010. Effects of exogenous GABA on gene expression of Caragana intermedia roots under NaCl stress: Regulatory roles for H2O2 and ethylene production. Plant, Cell and Environment 33: 149-162.
30- Aghdam M.S., Razavi F., and Karamneghad F. 2015. Maintaining the postharvest nutritional quality of peach fruits by γ-Aminobutyric acid. Journal of Plant Physiology 5(4): 1457- 1463.
31- Tejera N.A., Soussi M., and Lluch C. 2006. Physiological and nutritional indicators of tolerance to salinity in chickpea plants growing under symbiotic conditions. Environmental and Experimental Botany 58: 17-24.
32- Vijayakumari K., and Puthur T. 2015. Y-aminobutyric acid (GABA) priming enhances the osmotic stress tolerance in Piper nigrom L plants subjected to PEG induced stress. Plant Growth Regulation, 78: 57-67.
33- Wang C.Y., Fan L.Q., Gao H.B., Wu X.L., Li J.R., Lv G.Y., and Gong B.B. 2014a. Polyamine biosynthesis and degradation are modulated by exogenous gamma-aminobutyric acid in root-zone hypoxia-stressed melon roots. Journal of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 82: 17-26.
34- Wang Sh.Y., and Gao H. 2013. Effect of chitosan-based edible coating on antioxidants, antioxidant enzyme system, and postharvest fruit quality of strawberries Fragaria aranassa Duch. LWT- Food Science and Technology 52: 71-79.
35- Wang Y., Luo Z., and Huang H. 2014b. Effect of exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) treatment on chilling injury and antioxidant capacity in banana peel. Scientia Horticulturae 168: 132-137.
36- Wills R.B.H., and Ku V. 2002. Use of 1- MCP to extend the time to ripen of green tomatoes and postharvest life of ripe tomatoes. Postharvest Biology and Technology 26: 85-90.
37- Wonsheree T., Kesta S., and Doorn W.G. 2009. The relationship between chilling injury and membrane damage in lemon basil (Ocimum citriodourum) leaves. Postharvest Biology and Technology 51: 91–96.
38- Yadegari L.Z., Heidari R., and Carapetian J. 2007. The influence of cold acclimation on proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), total protein and pigments contents in soybean (Glycine max) seedlings. Journal Biology Science 7:1436–1441.
39- Yang A., Cao S., Yang Z., Cai Y., and Zheng Y. 2011. ????-Aminobutyric acid treatment reduces chilling injury and activates the defense response of peach fruit. Food Chemistry 129(4): 1619-1622.
40- Zhao D.Y., Shen L., Fan B., Liu K.L., Yu M., Zheng Y., Ding Y., and Sheng J.P. 2009. Physiological and genetic properties of tomato fruits from 2 cultivars differing in chilling tolerance at cold storage. Food Chemistry 74: 348–352.