مطالعه تأثیر فلزات سنگین کادمیم و سرب بر خصوصیات رشد و ویژگی‌های کیفی گیاه دارویی بادرنجبویه

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 پژوهشکده گیاهان و مواد اولیه دارویی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی تهران، تهران

2 گروه تولیدات گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی بردسیر، دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان، کرمان، ایران

چکیده

آلودگی خاک به فلزات سنگین به دلیل خطرات زیست محیطی که برای سلامت انسان دارد، در سال­های اخیر مورد توجه بسیاری از محققین قرار گرفته است. به منظور بررسی واکنش­های زیستی گیاه دارویی بادرنجبویه (Melissa officinalis) در شرایط تنش کادمیم و سرب، این مطالعه در طرح فاکتوریل و در قالب بلوک کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار در شرایط گلخانه­ای انجام شد. کادمیم در چهار سطح (صفر، 6، 12 و 24 میلی­گرم کادمیم در کیلوگرم خاک) به عنوان فاکتور اول و سرب در چهار سطح (صفر، 150، 300 و 450 میلی­گرم سرب در کیلوگرم خاک) به عنوان فاکتور دوم در نظر گرفته شد. نتایج نشان داد با افزایش غلظت کادمیم و سرب وزن خشک اندام هوایی و ریشه، میزان پروتئین، میزان فتوسنتز، سرعت تعرق و کارایی فلورسانس کلروفیل کاهش معنی­دار یافت، با این وجود، این کاهش در حضور کادمیم بیش از سرب مشاهده شد. اثر متقابل دو عنصر نیز صفات مذکور را کاهش داد. همچنین میزان مالون دی آلدهید، درصد اسانس و پرولین با افزایش غلظت هر دو عنصر در محیط افزایش یافت. با اینحال اثر متقابل دو عنصر بر صفات مذکور نشان داد که همراهی دو عنصر با یکدیگر باعث کاهش اثر منفی هر یک از عناصر به تنهایی می­شود. افزایش غلظت هریک از عناصر کادمیم و سرب به تنهایی غلظت همان عنصر را در بخش هوایی و ریشه به طور معنی­داری افزایش داد و این مسئله بیانگر رابطه مستقیم بین مقدار فلز در محیط و جذب آن توسط گیاه است. غلظت کادمیم در بخش هوایی و ریشه در بالاترین سطح کادمیم  (24 میلی­گرم بر کیلوگرم خاک) ، به ترتیب 96/1و 98/0(میکروگرم بر گرم وزن خشک) گزارش شد. غلظت سرب در بخش هوایی و ریشه در بالاترین سطح آن (450 میلی­گرم برکیلوگرم خاک) به ترتیب 55/3 و 02/2 (میکروگرم بر گرم وزن خشک) گزارش شد. همچنین اثر متقابل دو عنصر نشان داد که افزایش کادمیم در محیط باعث کاهش غلظت سرب در گیاه شد و افزایش غلظت سرب در محیط باعث کاهش غلظت کادمیم در گیاه شد. هیچ یک از دو عنصر سرب و کادمیم در اسانس این گیاه مشاهده نشد. همچنین در سطوح 12 و 24 میلی­گرم کادمیم در کیلوگرم خاک (سطوح بالای کادمیم)، افزایش غلظت سرب از 150 به 450 میلی­گرم، فاکتور انتقال کادمیم را 97/6 و 26/11 درصد افزایش داد. از مطالعه حاضر می توان دریافت که به طور کلی، گیاه از کادمیم بیشتر از سرب آسیب دیده و اثر بازدارندگی کادمیم و سرب روی یکدیگر تقریباً در تمام صفات مشاهده شد، همچنین با توجه به عدم حضور عناصر در اسانس، شاید بتوان گیاه بادرنجبویه را به عنوان گزینه مناسبی جهت کشت در مناطق آلوده معرفی نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the Effect of Cadmium and Lead on Growth Parameters and Quality Characteristics of Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • S.M.B. Razavi nia 1
  • N. Pourghasemian 2
  • F. Najafi 1
1 Department of Agriculture, Medicinal Plants and Drugs Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Plant Productions, Agricultural Faculty of Bardsir, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Pollution of the biosphere with toxic levels of metals has accelerated dramatically since the beginning of the industrial revolution. Soil pollution by heavy metals including cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) is a global problem, which can cause agricultural lands to become hazardous for wildlife and human populations. Accumulated Cd and Pb in their roots and shoots may also be negatively affect their photosynthesis, growth, and reproduction. Cd and Pb uptake and their effects on plants may be influenced by a variety of factors, e.g. the plant species, cultivar, soil characteristics and etc. Heavy metals such as Cd and Pb may cause the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), damage plant tissue membranes, and inhibit photosynthesis, carbon dioxide assimilation, and growth. Photosynthesis is the fundamental process of energy metabolism and therefore, closely related to the plants growth and productivity. However, it is a sensitive process and an important target of environmental stresses. Plants counteract the harmful effects of heavy metals by a variety of protective mechanisms including immobilization, exclusion, chelation, compartmentalization, osmotic regulation and elevating antioxidant system.
Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) is a widely grown aromatic and medicinal plant of the Labiatae family. The plant has various therapeutic properties and is also used to flavor different food products due to its particular taste. Little scientific data exist on the response of this medicinal plant to Cd and Pb stress. Therefore, the objective of this work was to investigate the biological and physiological responses of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) under cadmium and lead stress conditions.
Materials and Methods: A factorial randomized complete block design experiment with four replications was used to study the effect of Cd in four concentrations (0, 6, 12 and 24 mg.kg-1 soil) as well as Pb in four concentrations (0, 150 300 and 450 mg. Kg-1 soil). Before harvesting, chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthetic and transpiration rates were measured with fluorescence meter and photosynthetic meter, respectively. Thereafter, plants were harvested and the roots were washed in distilled water. Then, half of the plants were separated into roots and shoots, which were dried at 105 °C for 24 h to determine the dry weight, Cd and Pb concentrations, Cd transfer factor and essential oil content. The other half of the plants were separated into roots and shoots, kept in liquid nitrogen, and then stored in freezer for one week to determine proline and shoot MDA concentrations. Data were subjected to two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the difference between means was compared using LSD test. A significance level of 95% was applied by SAS 9.2.
Results and Discussion: According to the results, root and shoot dry weight, protein content, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and chlorophyll fluorescence were decreased by increasing Cd and Pb concentrations. However, Cd concentration decreased these traits more than Pb. The shoot MDA concentration, essential oil and proline content were enhanced by increasing Cd and Pbconcentrations. The combination of two pollutants (Cd and Pb) together reduces the negative impact of each element alone. Shoot and root Cd and Pb concentrations were increased by increasing Cd and Pbconcentrations. The interaction effect of Cd×Pbapplication showed that increasing Cd concentration decreased root and shoot Pb concentrations and increasing Pb concentration decreased root and shoot Cd concentrations. Cd and Pb were not detected in essential oil. Moreover, the Cd transfer factor was increased with increasing Pb concentration under high Cd concentration levels (12 and 24 mg.kg-1).
Conclusion:  This study demonstrated that Cd toxicity is more than Pb toxicity due to its high mobility. There was an antagonistic relationship between Cd and Pb. Furthermore, due to the absence of Cd and Pb in the essential oil, lemon balm may be a suitable plant for areas contaminated with heavy metals especial Cd and Pb.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chlorophyll fluorescence
  • Essential oil
  • Proline
  • Protein
  • Transpiration rate
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