Biochemical Properties of Twelve Indigenous Barberry (Berberis spp.) Genotypes

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Food Safety and Quality Control, Research Institute of Food Science and Technology, Mashhad, Iran

2 Department of Horticultural Science and Landscape Architecture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran


 Barberries are small fruits with appealing colors and tastes, and have a great diversity in Iran. There are numerous indigenous barberry genotypes in Iran, which have remarkable therapeutical and nutritional attributes. Seedless barberry is the most famous genotype which fruits are rich in phytochemicals. Although Iran is one of the main habitats of the barberry species and hybrids and the seedless cultivar is considered as an exclusive crop for our country, a few products are being produced from such valuable crop in food industries.
Materials and Methods
 In present study, fruit biochemical properties of the twelve barberry genotypes (including one seedless genotype and eleven seedy genotypes: 2-2, 4-1, 5-1, 5-2, 5-3, 8-3, 10-1, 11-1, 12-1, 13-1 and 14-2) of the barberry collection located in Research Institute of Food Science and Technology of Mashhad, were evaluated based on the fruit appearance. For this purpose, fruits were harvested in 2015 harvest time and divided into two parts. One part was dried in room temperature. Then dried fruits were kept in cool and dark place until analyses. The other part was kept fresh for some measurements including TSS, TA, TSS/TA and pH. Before all tests, fruits were deseeded and the properties of the pulp were determined. Biochemical properties included total soluble solid (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), TSS/TA ratio, fruit juice pH, total phenol content, total flavonoid content, total anthocyanin content, protein content, crude fiber, total sugar and minerals including Iron (Fe), Magnesium (Mg), Zinc (Zn) and Copper (Cu). Data analysis was performed based on completely randomized design by Minitab software version 16 using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and differences among means were determined for significance at p≤0.05 using Tukey’s range test.
Results and Discussion
 Results showed significant variation in biochemical properties of genotypes. Based on the results, genotype code #13-1 had the highest content of titratable acidity (5.61 g malic acid per 100 g fresh fruit weight) and the highest soluble solids content (5.5 °Brix). The highest amount of crude fiber (54.96%), Fe (138.49 ppm), Mg (1426.39 ppm) was related to genotype code #10-1 and the highest amount of anthocyanin (452.60 mg/100g), protein (4.26%) and Cu (6.80 ppm) belonged to genotype code #14-2. Two genotypes “Bidaneh” and code #5-3 displayed a distinctive content of total carbohydrates with respectively 59.61% and 25.67%. Furthermore, genotype code #11-1 showed the highest amount of Zn (18.85 ppm) among all.
 Up to now, barberry mostly has been consumed as a food seasoning and garnish. All data of this study suggest that barberry, as a functional food, can partially cover the body's daily requirements. Therefore, a comprehensive study should be performed to determine all the capacities and uses associated with each genotype. Overall, genotype code #14-2 can be introduced as the best genotype in terms of flavonoid, anthocyanin, protein and copper content of all the evaluated genotypes. Considering its high content of anthocyanin, producing an edible colorant powder is possible. In conclusion, considering the great diversity, fruits of indigenous barberry genotypes can provide a rich source of minerals and phytochemicals for food purposes. Furthermore, achieving applied science in making products from such indigenous crop could lead into investments and economic development in regions in which barberry is cultivated.


Main Subjects


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  • Receive Date: 19 November 2018
  • Revise Date: 15 February 2021
  • Accept Date: 10 March 2021
  • First Publish Date: 10 March 2021