Effect of different irrigation intervals and anti-transpirants compounds on yield and yield components and oil of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa)

Document Type : Research Article


1 University of Mashhad

2 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad



The ever-increasing tendency to the use of medicinal plants in the world has grown concerns about their cultivation and production processes. As medicinal plants are more compatible with the nature, special interest and attention has recently been given to herb therapy, and use of medicinal plants, being limited by the rise of pharmaceutical drugs, has become again common and widespread due to a number of reasons. Nigella sativa L. is one of the herbs that has a variety of uses and has been being used in iran’s traditional medicine since old times. Today this plant is considered as one of the most important kinds of medicine. Therefore, it is of great importance to conduct some researches on the herbs around the country due to different ecological requirements. N. sativa belonging to buttercup family, with the scientific name of Ranunculaceae, is an annual, dicotyledonous, herbaceous plant. In several studies, N. sativa has been reported to have anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, strengthening of immune system, and anti-histamine and oil extract properties. Furthermore, several effects such as lowering blood sugar, lipids, and hypertension, excretion of bile and uric acid, protection of liver, kidney and cardiovascular tissues as well as anti-seizure, anti-cancer, anti-microbial and anti-parasitic effects related to this plant have been reported. The aim of the present study is to improve the yield and yield components and oil of medicinal plant N. sativa by anti-transpiration compounds under drought stress conditions.

Materials and Methods An experiment was conducted at Research Station,Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, in 2012-2013. The research was done using a split plot experiment on a randomized complete block design with three replications. The irrigation intervals (8 and 16 days) in main plots and anti-transpiration compounds of chitosan (0.25, 0.5 and 1 %), Plantoga psyllium mucilage (0.5, 1 and 1.5 %) and arabic gum (0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 %) were put in subplots with three replications. Also, the distance between the main plots in each block and distance between the two blocks were assigned as 100 cm and 200 cm, respectively; so that the moisture content of a plot had no effect on the adjacent plots. Planting date was April16 and planting was performed by hand in 0.5cm-deep furrows. Anti-transpiration compounds were sprayed simultaneously with applying drought stress till the flowering stage once a week at sunset. yield and yield components and oil were measured.

Results Discussion Results showed that irrigation intervals had significant effects on all studied characteristics with the exception of 1000 seed weight. Increasing irrigation intervals reduced percentage yield and yield components and oil of black cumin grains. anti-transpirants compounds did have significant effects on percentage of oil and yield and yield components of black cumin grains. There were significant difference between different anti-transpirants compounds in terms of oil and yield components yield and of black cumin grains. The 8 days irrigation interval produced more grainyield compared with 16 days irrigation intervals (621/56 vs. 484/23kg/ha). The greatest oil (74/27%) and Lowest(74/21 %) Respectively at Treatment anti-transpirants compound chitosan1 percent With8 days irrigation interval and gam arabic 0/25 percent was obtained with 16 days irrigation interval.ccchitosan stimulating abscisic acid synthesis in the treated plant would result in stomatal closure, reduction of stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and water content. They also pointed out that the anti-transpiration effect of chitosan was because of its stimulatory effect in increasing abscisic acid concentration in the treated leaves of bean plant. As the above compounds are natural and biodegradable, as well as safer and less expensive than other chemical anti-transpiration compounds, they can serve as a good alternative to the chemical compounds. Cognition and expertise in water relations of plant and drought stress tolerance is considered as the main program in agriculture and the ability to withstand this stress is of great economic importance

Conclusion the anti-transpiration compounds led to significant changes in terms of all the studied traits compared to the control, indicating the effectiveness of theses natural compounds. Providing the appropriate conditions, 1% chitosan treatment can enhance the yield under drought stress. Spraying by arabic gum did not improve the growth conditions. According to this experiment, 1% chitosan treatment and 1.5% Plantago psyllium mucilage is considered the most appropriate strategy to enhance the yield of Nigella Sativa under drought stress.

Main Subjects


Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript
Available Online from 05 April 2021
  • Receive Date: 13 September 2015
  • Revise Date: 19 April 2022
  • Accept Date: 05 April 2021
  • First Publish Date: 05 April 2021