ارزیابی تنوع ژنتیکی برخی از ژنوتیپ‌های زرشک وحشی (spp. Berberis) در استان‌های البرز و تهران با استفاده از نشانگرهای ریخت شناسی و میوه شناسی

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسنده

موسسه تحقیقات علوم باغبانی کشور

10.22067/jhs.2021.68493.1018

چکیده

زرشک از گیاهان بومی ایران و متحمل به تنش‌های محیطی بخصوص خشکی است. تنوع ژنتیکی 25 ژنوتیپ زرشک وحشی در دامنه‌های شمالی استان‌های تهران و البرز با استفاده از خصوصیات مورفولوژیکی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. 32 صفت کمّی و کیفی مورفولوژیکی و باغبانی بر اساس دستور العمل UPOV (TG 68/3) ارزیابی شدند که از این تعداد 11 صفت کمی قابل اندازه گیری شامل‌ طول و عرض برگ، طول و عرض میوه، طول دمگل، تعداد حبه در خوشه، طول خار، ویتامین ث، TA (Titratable Acidity) و TSS (Total Soluble Solid) مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت. برای تعیین فاصله ژنتیکی بین ژنوتیپ ها از روش‌های آماری چند متغیره شامل تجزیه به عامل‌ها، تجزیه خوشه‌ای و ضرایب همبستگی بین صفات استفاده شد. نتایج تجزیه واریانس اختلاف معنی‌داری را بین ژنوتیپ‌ها برای تمام صفات کمّی مورد ارزیابی نشان داد. تعداد حبه در خوشه با 55/45 ، طول خار با 67/28 و اسید قابل تیتراسیون با 58/26 درصد بیشترین دامنه تغییرات را داشتند. ژنوتیپ‌های وحشی زرشک با دارا بودن حداقل میزان 7/4 میلی‌گرم ویتامین ث در صد گرم میوه تازه (ژنوتیپ آسارا یک) و بیشترین مقدار مقدار ویتامین ث 57/10 (طالقان 4) و 63/9 (چالوس 8) و 4/9 (طالقان 8) در مقایسه با میوه های معتدله مانند سیب، انگور، گیلاس و هلو قابل توجه هستند. طبق تجزیه خوشه‌ای ژنوتیپ‌های زرشک وحشی به پنج گروه اصلی و ده زیر گروه و یک ژنوتیپ مستقل (چالوس 9) تقسیم شدند. در اکثر موارد ژنوتیپ‌ها با موقعیت اقلیمی یکسان رویشی در یک گروه قرار گرفتند. ژنوتیپ‌های گروه یک بالاترین طول و عرض میوه، طول و عرض برگ و طول خار را داشتند. در این میان ژنوتیپ‌های چالوس 8 و طالقان 8 با دارا بودن مقدار بالای ویتامین ث، در یک زیر گروه قرار گرفتند. ژنوتیپ‌های طالقان4، چالوس 8 و طالقان 8 با بیشترین میزان ویتامین ث قابل اهمیت در برنامه‌های اصلاحی هستند. تنوع مشاهده شده در بین ژنوتیپ‌های زرشک وحشی زمینه مناسبی برای برنامه‌های اصلاحی و انتقال صفات مطلوب می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of Genetic Diversity of Some Wild Barberry Genotypes (Berberis spp) in Alborz and Tehran Provinces Using Morpho-pomological Markers

چکیده [English]

Introduction: Barberry is one of the native plants of Iran and tolerates environmental stresses, especially drought. This species can play a special role in the future development of horticulture in Iran. This species is drought tolerant and can be used in the development of rain-fed gardens. The Barberry family contains 15 genera and 650 species, most of which are distributed in the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. The most important genus in the barberry family is Berberis. This genus has 500 species, some of which, including Zalzalaki, Zarafshani, Khorasani, Rastkhoshe, common and Japanese barberry, exist in Iran (Berberis vulgaris, B. orthobotrys, B. crataegina, B. integerrima, and B. khorasanica). This plant is widely distributed in Iran. Various wild species of barberry are distributed in the southern and northern slopes of Alborz from Firoozkooh, Taleghaneh, Miyaneh to Amarlu of Gilan. This genus grows on large areas of the Zagros at an altitude of 1000 to 2500 meters above sea level. Iran is the largest producer of seedless barberry in the world with a cultivated area of 18341 hectares and production of 21181 tons of dried barberry. This species can play a special role in the future development of horticulture in the country and reduce the pressure on water resources, especially in rain-fed horticulture.

Materials and Methods: In this study, 25 genotypes were evaluated from three regions: west of Alborz province (Taleghan region), north of Alborz province (Chalus road and Khuzenkola, Arangeh, Asara to Dizin heights) and northeast of Tehran (Lavasanat). Morphological evaluation was performed according to UPOV instruction (TG 68/3). 32 quantitative and qualitative morphological and horticultural traits were evaluated according to UPOV (TG 3.68). Of which 11 quantifiable traits including leaf length and width, fruit length and width, pedicel length, Berries per raceme, cluster length, spines length, vitamin C, TA (Titratable Acidity) and TSS (Total Soluble Solid) were analyzed.

Results and Discussion: The results of analysis of variance showed significant differences between genotypes for all quantitative traits evaluated at the level of 1% and for the number of berries per cluster at the level of 5%. The high coefficient of variation indicates high variability for the desired trait, which allows the breeder to have more choices for selecting desired genotypes. The number of fruits per cluster with 45.55, spines length with 28.67 and titratable acid with 26.58 percent malic acid, had the highest range of changes. Qualitative traits included Foliage secondary color, Leaf curvature and Leaf margin, Leaf glossiness, Color of lower side, Fruit tip, Fruit waxiness, Foliage persistence, and Shoot color in spring among the genotypes were uniform and without variance. The lowest coefficient of variation among quantitative traits was related to Brix with 7.16 percent and fruit length with 13.14 percent. The highest number of fruits belonged to Lavasan genotype (AD8) with an average of 25 fruits per cluster, which was very different from other genotypes. The highest and lowest fruit length and width are related to Taleghan 5 (11.59 mm) and Chalus 7 (3.26 mm) genotypes, respectively. In a study, the average length and width of barberry fruit were 7.69 and 3.32 mm, respectively, which were higher than the values of the present study. Vitamin C is one of the nutritional values of fruits and has direct effects on human health. Wild barberry genotypes with at least 4.7 mg per 100 gram of fresh fruit (Asara I genotype) and the highest values of 10.57 (Taleghan 4), 9.63 (Chalous 8) and 9.4 (Taleghan 8) in Comparisons with temperate fruits such as stone and pome fruits are significant9 (The amount of vitamin C in apples is 4.6, grapes 4, black cherries 10, peaches 6.6 mg/100 g F.W.). In strawberries as an indicator plant, this value is reported between 10 and 100 and an average of 58.8 and lemons 53 mg/100 g F.W.. Khayat and Mahmoud Abadi (2010) reported the amount of vitamin C in seedless barberry treated by fertilizers was between 4 to 9 mg / 100 g of fresh fruit. In this study, the amount of vitamin C in barberry was higher. The highest values of total soluble solids or Brix˚ were related to Chalus 8 genotypes with 24.83 and Chalus 1 with 23.23 and the lowest amount was related to Asara 2 genotype with 18.1%. Khayat and Mahmoud Abadi (2010) reported the total soluble solids were the range between 18.3 to 33.06 percent in seedless barberry, which is much higher than our experiment. The highest titratable acidity were observed in Taleghan 4, Taleghan 8 and Taleghan 2 genotypes, with 2.66, 2.65 and 2.41 mg/ml malic acid respectively, and the lowest titratable acid was observed in Chalus 9 genotype with 1.12 mg/ml malic acid. This value has been reported in domestic barberry between 1.07 and 2.95. The highest mean leaf lengths were observed in Chalus cultivars 3 and 5. Among the genotypes, Taleghan 7 has the longest Pedicel length.

Conclusions: The selected genotypes for breeding program in this study were the Oshan (AD8) genotypes with an average of 25 fruits per cluster and for vitamin C were the genotypes Taleghan 4 (10.57), Chalus 8 (9.63) and Taleghan 8 (9.4) mg/100 g F.W.. The highest genotypes for total soluble solids were Chalus 8 genotypes with 24.83 and Chalus 1 with 23.23 percent.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Barberry
  • Cluster analysis
  • vitamin C
  • Genetic distance

مقالات آماده انتشار، پذیرفته شده
انتشار آنلاین از تاریخ 03 آبان 1400
  • تاریخ دریافت: 11 بهمن 1399
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 26 مهر 1400
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 03 آبان 1400