Study Application Effect of Impermeable Soil Layer and Date Palm Leaf Mulch on Some MorphoPhysiological and Biochemical Traits of Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) under Low Irrigation Stress

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Horticultural Science and Agronomy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Horticultural Science, University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

3 Dryland Agricultural Research Institute (DARI), Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Maragheh, Iran

4 National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran, Iran


 The use of natural and artificial mulches to reduce evaporation from the soil surface and retain moisture is one of the best measures to make optimal use of limited water resources and increase crop yields. Optimal production of plants in sandy soils has been challenged due to their low capacity in water retention and also production of plants in arid and semi-arid regions due to water shortage and drought stress. Water scarcity is increasing as a result of global warming, and attention is being paid to the methods that lead to water storage. Therefore, it is necessary to increase water consumption efficiency with new technologies. One of the new methods of water retention in the root zone is the use of a water retaining layer below the soil surface. By preserving water and elements in the root zone and creating a stable environmental state, it increases local production and economy by reducing soil erosion and groundwater pollution. Also, due to limited water resources, it is necessary to seek solutions to conserve water and increase water use efficiency. Mulch is considered as one of the best ways to retain water in the soil and reduce soil evaporation. Therefore, in this study, the application of impermeable soil layer on morphophysiological and biochemical traits of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) was investigated using date leaf mulch under deficit irrigation stress.
Materials and Methods
 This study was conducted in Roudan, Hormozgan, Iran. Main plot includes deficit irrigation stress in three levels (100, 70,40 % of plant water requirement), sub-plot includes mulch in two levels (date leaves and no mulch) and sub-sub-plot includes impermeable layer in three levels (0, 100, 120 cm). Eggplant seeds of the local variety Rudan were planted in the seedling tray and transplanted when the seedlings were about 15 cm long or 5-6 leaf stage. Shortly after transplanting the seedlings to the field, daily irrigation was performed. CROPWAT software was used to calculate 100 % of the water requirement. Stress was applied using drippers with lower flow rate or reduced irrigation hours and by installing water meters.
Results and Discussion
 The results showed that the highest plant height (78 cm) belonged to date palm mulch, layer impermeable at depth of 120 cm and 100% water requirement. The use of date palm mulch and impermeable layer, especially the impermeable layer, has led to an increase in the number of leaves and fruits in the eggplant. The highest number of leaves (189) belonged to the treatment without mulch and with an impermeable layer of 120 cm soil depth in 100 % water requirement and the lowest (75.13) belonged to the treatment without mulch and impermeable layer in 40 % water requirement. The highest number of fruits belonged to the treatment without mulch and impermeable layer at depth of 120 cm and 100 % water requirement and the highest amount of dry matter (12.5%) belonged to the treatment of date palm mulch and impermeable layer at depth of 120 cm and 100 % water requirement and the lowest (1/9%) belonged to date palm mulch without impermeable layer and 70% water requirement. The results showed deficit irrigation stress reduced the amount of chlorophyll a, b and total in eggplant. The use of date palm mulch and impermeable layer in water requirement of 70 and 40 % has increased the amount of chlorophyll, which seems to be used in case of water shortage, reduce the adverse effects of dehydration and prevent the destruction of chlorophyll in eggplant. The highest amount of total chlorophyll belonged to the 100 % water requirement, without the use of date palm mulch and impermeable at depth of layer 120 cm. The highest amount of proline in this study belonged to treatment without date palm mulch, application of impermeable layer at depth of 0 cm and water requirement of 40 % and the lowest belonged to the treatment of date palm mulch, application of impermeable layer at depth of 120 cm and 100 % water requirement. The highest amount of eggplant water use efficiency was obtained in 40 % water requirement, use of date palm mulch and impermeable layer at depth of 120 cm. The results of this study also showed that deficit irrigation stress reduced fruit yield in eggplant and the use of date palm mulch and impermeable layer also increased eggplant yield. This increase in fruit yield is especially noticeable in the use of date palm mulch and impermeable layer at depth of 120 cm.
 It seems that the impermeable layer and date palm mulch have reduced the negative effects of water stress on the plant, increased fruit yield and water use efficiency and reduced the effects of stress.


Main Subjects

جلد36 شماره2 سال1401

  1. Abdrabbo M.A.A., Saleh S.M., and Hashem F.A. 2017. Eggplant production under deficit irrigation and polyethylene mulch. Egyptian Journal of Applied Sciences 32(7): 148-161. https://doi:13140/RG.2.2.21904.40961.
  2. Adamczewska-Sowińska K., Krygier M., and Turczuk J. 2016. The yield of eggplant depending on climate conditions and mulching. Folia Horticulturae 28(1): 19-24.
  3. Al-Bayati H.J.M., Kamel T.J. 2016. Role of soil mulching and organic fertilizers on improving vegetative growth and yield of cucumber plant (Cucumis sativus ) grown under unheated plastic house. Scientific Journal of Karbala University 14(1): 12-21. https://doi: /10.1088/1755-1315/553/1/012027.
  4. AL-Bayati H.M., and Hamdoon D.N. 2019. Response of eggplant Solanum melongena to soil mulching, organic and inorganic fertilizers on vegetative growth traits and yield grown under unheated plastic house. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 388(1). https://doi:/10.1088/1755-1315/388/1/012075.
  5. Al-Omran A.M., Sheta A.S., Falatah A.M., and Al-Harbi A.R. 2005. Effect of drip irrigation on squash (Cucurbita pepo) yield and water-use efficiency in sandy calcareous soils amended with clay deposits. Agricultural Water Management 73: 43-55.
  6. Al-Rawi S., Ibrahim Aoda M., and Salih Ati A. 2017. The Role of subsurface water retention technology (SWRT) for growing chili pepper in Iraqi sandy soils. Journal of Environment and Earth Science 7(1): 81-89.
  7. Ashrafuzzaman M., Abdul Halim M., Mohd Razi Ismai S., Shahidullah M., and Alamgir Hossain M. 2011. Effect of plastic mulch on growth and yield of chilli (Capsicum annuum). Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology 54(2): 321-330.
  8. Bates L., Waldern R., and Teare ID. 1973. Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies. Plant and Soil 39: 205-207.
  9. Behzadnejad J., Tahmasebi-Sarvestani Z., Aein A., and Mokhtassi-Bidgoli A. 2020. Wheat straw mulching helps improve yield in sesame (Sesamum indicum) under drought stress. International Journal of Plant Production 1-12. https://doi:10.1007/s42106-020-00091-8.
  10. Bhardwaj R.L. 2013. Effect of mulching on crop production under rainfed condition- A review. Agricultural Reviews 34(3): 188-197.
  11. Demirel K., and Kavdir Y. 2012. Effect of soil water retention barriers on turfgrass growth and soil water content. Journal of Irrigation Science 2: 271-276. https://doi:1007/s00271-012-0345-1.
  12. Ekinci M., and Dursun A. 2009. Effects of different mulch materials on plant growth, some quality parameters and yield in melon (Cucumis melo) cultivars in high altitude environmental condition. Pakistan Journal of Botany 41(4): 1891-1901.
  13. Farre I., and Faci J.M. 2006. Comparative response of maize (Zea mays) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) to deficit irrigation in a Mediterranean environment. Agricultural Water Management 83(1): 135-143. https://doi:10.1016/j.agwat.2005.11.001.
  14. Farzi R., and Ghoami M. 2017. The effect of mulch on some photosynthetic parameters and water relations of olive cultivar Manzanilla under water stress. Journal of Production and Processing of Crops and Horticulture 8 (3): 117-131. https://doi:29252/jcpp.8.3.117.
  15. Fereres E., and Soriano M.A. 2007. Deficit irrigation increase for reducing agricultural water use. Journal of Experimental Botany 58: 147-159.
  16. Fita A., Fioruci F., Plazas M., Rodiguez-Burruzo A., and Prohens J. 2015. Drought tolerance among accessions of eggplant and related species. Bulletin UASVM Horticulture 72(2): 461-462. https://doi:15835/buasvmcn-hort:11600.
  17. Gajanayake B., Reddy K.R., Shankle M.W., and Arancibia R.A. 2014. Growth, developmental, and physiological responses of two sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L) cultivars to early season soil moisture deficit. Scientia Horticulturae 168: 218–228.
  18. Gao H., Yan C., Liu Q., Li Z., Yang X., and Qi R. 2019. Exploring optimal soil mulching to enhance yield and water use efficiency in maize cropping in China: A meta-analysis. Agricultural Water Management 225: 105741.
  19. Gobu R., Babu B.N., Chandra K., and Shankar M. 2017. Insight into the genetic diversity of eggplant (Solanum melongena) genotypes through D2 analysis. Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding 8(3): 811-815. https://doi:10.5958/0975-928X.2017.00129.6.
  20. Guber A.K., Smucker A.J.M., Berhanu S., and Miller J.M.L. 2015. Subsurface water retention technology improves root zone water storage for corn production on coarse-textured soils. Journal of Vadose Zone 1-13.
  21. Ibeawuchi I.I., Iheoma O.R., Obilo O.P., and Obiefuna J.C. 2008. Effect of time of mulch application on the growth and yield of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) in Owerri, Southeastern Nigeria. Life Science Journal 5(1) 89-93.
  22. Jaafar H.S., and Gleikh S.A.M. 2020. Response of two cultivars of okra (Abelmochus esculentus) moench to spraying with amino acids on some growth and yield parameters. Plant Archives 20(2): 1834-1837.
  23. Karam F., Saliba R., Skaf S., Breidy J., Rouphael Y., and Balendonck J. 2011. Yield and water use of eggplants (Solanum melongena) under full and deficit irrigation regimes. Agricultural Water Management 98: 1307–1316.
  24. Kashif A., Weiyu W., Ahmad K., Guangxin R., Zahir A.M., Yongzhong F., and Gaihe Y. 2018. Wheat straw mulching with fertilizer nitrogen: An approach for improving soil water storage and maize crop productivity. Plant and Soil Environmental 64: 330–337.
  25. Kirnak H., Kaya C., Tas I., and Higgs D. 2001. The influence of water deficit on vegetative growth, physiology, fruit yield and quality in eggplants. Journal of Plant Physiology, 27: 34–46.
  26. Kumar S., and Dey P. 2011. Effects of different mulches and irrigation methods on root growth, nutrient uptake, water-use efficiency and yield of strawberry. Scientia Horticulturae 127: 318-324.
  27. Lobato A.K.S., Oliveira-Neto C.F., Santos-Filho B.G., Costa R.C.L., Cruz F.J.R., Neves H.K.B., and Lopes M.J.S. 2008. Physiological and biochemical behavior in soybean (Glycine max Sambaiba) plants under water deficit. Australian Journal Crop Science 2(1): 25-32.
  28. Mohawesh O. 2016. Utilizing deficit irrigation to enhance growth performance and water-use efficiency of eggplant in arid environmentsournal of Agricultural Science and Technology 18: 265-276.
  29. Pakyurek A.Y., Abak K., Sari N., and Guler H.Y. 2007. Influence of mulching on earliness and yield of some vegetables grown under high AL-Bayati Acta Horticultural 104: 81-90. https://doi:10.1016/B978-0-08-102170-5.00003-8.
  30. Pask A.J.D., Pietragalla J., Mullan D.M., and Reynolds M.P. 2012. Physiological breeding II: a field guide to wheat phenotyping. Cimmyt.
  31. Porra R.J., Thompson W.A., and Kriedemann P.E. 1989. Determination of accurate extinction coefficients and simultaneous equations for assaying chlorophylls a and b extracted with four different solvents: verification of the concentration of chlorophyll standards by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 975: 384–394.
  32. Qu X., Wang H., Chen M., Liao J., Yuan J., and Niu G. 2019. Drought stress–induced physiological and metabolic changes in leaves of two oil tea cultivars. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 144(6): 439- 447.
  33. Serhat A.Y.A.S. 2017. The Effects of irrigation regimes on the yield and water use of eggplant (Solanum melongena). Toprak Su Dergisi 6(2): 49-58. https://doi:10.21657/topraksu.339835.
  34. Tani E., Kizis D., Markellou E., Papadakis I., Tsamadia D., Leventis G., and Karapanos I. 2018. Cultivar-dependent responses of eggplant (Solanum melongena ) to simultaneous Verticillium dahliae infection and drought. Frontiers in Plant Science 9: 1181.
  35. Tezara W., Mitchell V., Driscoll S., and Lawlor D. 2002. Effects of water deficit and its interaction with CO2 supply on the biochemistry and physiology of photosynthesis in sunflower. Journal of Experimental Botany 53: 1781-1791.
  36. Vitkauskaite G., and Venskaityte L. 2011. Differences between C3 (Hordeum vulgare ) and C4 (Panicum miliaceum L.) plants with respect to their resistance to water deficit. Agriculture 98(4): 349-356.
  37. Wang F.X., Wua X.X., Clinton C., Shockb L.Y., Chua X.X., and Gua X.X. 2011. Effects of drip irrigation regimes on potato tuber yield and quality under plastic mulch in arid Northwestern China. Field Crops Research 122: 78–84.
  38. Xoconstle- Cazares B., Ramirez-Ortega F.A., Flores-Lenez L., and Ruiz-Medrano R. 2010. Drought tolerance in crop plants. American Journal of Plant Physiology 5(5): 214-256.
  39. Yan F., Sun Y., Xu H., Yin Y., Wang H., Wang C., and Ma J. 2018. Effects of wheat straw mulch application and nitrogen management on rice root growth, dry matter accumulation and rice quality in soils of different fertility. Paddy and Water Environment 16(3): 507-518.
  40. Yang Y., Liu X., Li W., and Li C. 2006. Effect of different mulch materials on winter wheat production in desalinized soil in Heilongjiang region of North China. Journal of Zhejiang University Science 711: 858-867. https://doi: 1631/jzus.2006.B0858.
  41. Zulu N.S. 2009. Wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus ) landrace production in response to three seedling growth media and field planting dates. M.Sc. Thesis. Faculty of Agriculture, KwaZulu-Nata University, Pietermaritzbu.


  • Receive Date: 16 September 2021
  • Revise Date: 11 October 2021
  • Accept Date: 09 December 2021
  • First Publish Date: 12 December 2021