The Effect of Gamma Amino Butyric Acid on Improving Dehydration Stress Tolerance in Portulaca oleracea

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Horticulture Faculty of Agriculture Shahid bahonar university of Kerman

2 Department of Horticultural Science, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran.


 Portulaca oleraceae is used in many countries for a variety of purposes, including human nutrition and the conversion and pharmaceutical industries. The edible parts of Portulaca oleracea are the young organs, especially the brittle leaves and stems. Over time, this medicinal herb has been forgotten. Drought, on the other hand, is a factor in the decline of crops and horticulture around the world. Given the vastness of arid and semi-arid regions in Iran and also the reduction of access to water resources, appropriate arrangements should be made for the optimal use of water in the agricultural sector. Changing the planting pattern and using useful and resistant alternative species such as drought-tolerant medicinal plants can enable the optimal use of limited water resources. GABA is an important non-protein amino acid that plays a positive role in increasing plant resistance to stress.
Materials and Methods
 This experiment was carried out in 2020 as a factorial based on a completely randomized design with three replications in the vegetable research greenhouse of the Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman. Experimental treatments included different levels of GABA (0, 20, and 40 mM). Treatment with different concentrations of GABA was done in two stages of 6 and 12 leaves of portulaca oleracea and foliar application and application of dehydration stress in three levels of control, medium and severe at irrigation intervals of 7, 14, and 21 days from 6 leaf stage of plants to the end.
Results and Discussion
 According to the analysis of variance, the effect of GABA at different concentrations and dehydration stress on plant height was significant at the level of 5% probability. Based on the mean comparison test, the highest plant height was obtained in GABA treatment of 40 mM and irrigation intervals of 7 days (control), and the lowest of this trait was obtained in GABA zero treatment and irrigation intervals of 21 days (highest stress level). The results of analysis of variance showed that the effect of GABA at different concentrations and dehydration stress on vegetative yield was significant, the interaction between irrigation intervals and GABA was significant at 5% level. Based on the mean comparison test, the highest vegetative yield was obtained in GABA treatment of 40 mM and irrigation intervals of 7 days and the lowest in control treatment and irrigation intervals of 21 days. According to the results of the analysis of variance table, the effect of GABA at different concentrations and dehydration stress on the amount of malondialdehyde was significant at the level of 1% probability. Based on the means comparison test, the highest amount of this trait was obtained in the control treatment. Comparison of the mean of the data showed that the effect of GABA at different concentrations and dehydration stress caused a significant difference in the probability level of 1% in the proline content of the data. Based on the mean comparison test, the highest amount of proline was observed in GABA treatment of 40 mM and irrigation intervals of 21 days and the lowest amount was observed in control treatment and irrigation intervals of 7 days. As can be seen in the comparison table of means, the highest activity of superoxide dismutase enzyme was obtained in GABA treatment at 40 mM and irrigation intervals of 14 days and the lowest in control treatment and irrigation intervals was 7 days (Table 2). The results of this study showed that the effect of GABA at different concentrations and dehydration stress on the activity of catalase was significant at the level of 1% probability. As can be seen in the comparison table of means, the highest level of catalase activity was 40 mM in GABA treatment and 21 days irrigation intervals and the lowest in GABA treatment was 40 mM and irrigation intervals were 7 days.
 The results of this study indicate that GABA is able to greatly alleviate the oxidative stress caused by dehydration in Portulaca oleracea. This effect is quite evident in oxidative parameters, especially the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The concentration of 40 mM GABA was the most effective treatment in mitigating the effects of irrigation. The results show that the use of GABA makes Portulaca oleracea tolerant to dehydration stress.


Main Subjects

  1. Abdel-Monaim, M.F. (2013). Improvement of biocontrol of damping-off and root rot/wilt of faba bean by salicylic acid and hydrogen peroxide. Journal of Mycobiology 41(5): 47-55. (In Persian with English abstract). https://doi:10.5941/MYCO.2013.41.1.47
  2. Afshar, M., Tarzi, B., Gharachoorloo, M., & Bakhoda, H. (2006). Evaluation and comparison of chemical compounds and fatty acids in the leaves of two samples of Iranian portulaca oleraceae belonging to the north and south. Food Science and Nutrition Journal 3(1): 59-64. (In Persian with English abstract)
  3. Asada, K. (1999). The water-water cycle in chloroplasts: scavenging of active oxygen and dissipation of excess photons. Journal of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 50(1): 601-639. https://doi: 10.1146/annurev.arplant.50.1.601.
  4. Bates, L.S., Waldren, R.P., & Teare, I.D. (1973). Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies. Journal of Plant and Soil 39(1): 205-207.
  5. Blum, A. (2005). Drought resistance, water-use efficiency, and yield potential are they compatible, dissonant, or mutually exclusive. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 56(1): 1159-1168. https://doi:10.1071/AR05069.
  6. Bouche, N., & Fromm, H. (2004). GABA in plants: just a metabolite. Trends Plant Science 9(1): 110-115. https://doi:10.1016/j.tplants.2004.01.006.
  7. Chance, B., & Maehly, A.C. (1955). Assay of catalase and peroxidase. Methods in Enzymology 2(1): 764-775.
  8. Chevone, B.I., Seiler, J.R., Melkonian, J., & Amundson, R.G. (1990). Ozone-water stress interactions, adaptation and acclimation mechanisms. (ed. by Ruth G. Alscher, Jonathan R. Cumming). Wiley-Liss, U.S.A. Plant Biology Stress Responses in Plants 21(1): 311-328.
  9. Delauney, A.J., & Verma, D.P.S. (1993). Proline biosynthesis and osmoregulation in plants. Plant Journal 4(2): 215-223. https://doi:10.1046/j.1365-313X.1993.04020215.x.
  10. Efeoglu, B., Ekmekci, Y., & Cicek, N. (2009). Physiological responses of three maize cultivars to drought. Journal of Phytotherapy Research 16(3): 240-244.
  11. Emam, Y., & Avareh, M. (2005). Drought tolerance in higher plants. Tehran University Publishing Center Publication 186. (In Persian)
  12. Eyidogan, F., & Tufanoz, M. (2007). Effect of salinity on antioxidant responses of chickpea seedlings. Journal of Acta Physiologia Plantarum 29(1): 485-493. https://doi:10.1007/s11738-007-0059-9.
  13. Fait, A., Fromm, H., Walter, D., Galili, G.,& Fernie, A. (2007). Highway or byway: the metabolic role of the GABA shunt in plants. Elsevier Ltd 13(1): 9-14. https://doi:10.1016/j.tplants.2007.10.005.
  14. Fattolahi, A., Ghahremani, Z., Barzegar, T., & Safari, M. (2015). Effect of GABA on Morphological indices of Cucumber cultivars under dehydration. Third Conference on New Findings in Environment and Agricultural Ecosystems 3(1): 139-148.
  15. Galmes, J., Flexas, J., Save, R., & Medrano, H. (2007). Water relations and stomatal characteristics of Mediterranean plants with different gowth forms and leaf habits. Responses to water stress and recovery. Journal of Plant Soil 290(1): 139-155. https://doi:10.1007/s11104-006-9148-6.
  16. Giannopolitis, C.N., & Ries, S.K. (1977). Superoxide dismutase, occurrence in higher plants. Journal of Plant Physiology 59(2): 309-314. https://doi:10.1104/pp.59.2.309.
  17. Gill, S., & Tuteja, N. (2010). Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant machinery in abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Journal of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 48(12): 909-930. https://doi:10.1016/j.plaphy.2010.08.016.
  18. Hasandokht, M. (2012). Vegetable production technology. Selseleh Publication. (In Persian)
  19. Heath, R.L., & Packer, L. (1969). Photoperoxidation in isolated chloroplast. Kinetics and stoichiometry of fatty acid peroxidation. Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysiology 125(1): 189-198. https://doi:10.1016/0003-9861(68)90654-1.
  20. Inanlufar, M., Omidi, H., & Pazoki, A. (2012). Morphological, agronomical changes and oil content in Purslane (Portulaca oleracea) under drought stress and biological/chemical fertilizer of nitrogen. Journal of Medicinal Plants 12(48):170-184. (In Persian with English abstract) https://doi:20.1001.1.2717204.2013.
  21. Irigoyen, J.J., Emerich, D.W., & Sanchez-Diaz, M. (1992). Water stress induced changes in concentrations of proline and total soluble sugars in nodulated alfalfa (Medicago sativa) plants. Journal of Plant Physiology 84(1): 55-60.
  22. Jami_al_ahmadi, M., Kafi, M., & Nasiri Mahalati, M. (2004). Salinity effects on germination properties of Kochia scoparia. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 2(2): 151-159. (In Persian with English abstract)
  23. Javanmardi, Sh., Fotovat, R., & Saba, J. (2010). relationship between osmotic adjustment with soluble carbohydrates and proline and role of osmotic adjustment in grain yield of wheat lines under drought stress. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 14(53): 65-73. (In Persian with English abstract). https://doi: 20.1001.1.24763594.1389.
  24. Kinnersley, A.M., & Lin, F. (2000). Receptor modifiers indicate that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a potential modulator of ion transport in plants. Journal of Plant Growth Regulators 32(1): 65-76.
  25. Krishnan, S., Laskowski, K., Shukla, V., & Merewitz, E. (2013). Mitigation of drought stress damage by exogenous application of a non-protein amino acid γ–aminobutyric acid on perennial ryegrass. Journal of Plant, Soil, and Microbial Sciences 138(5): 358-366. https://doi:10.21273/JASHS.138.5.358.
  26. Liu, C.L., Zhao, L., & Yu, G.H. (2011). The dominant glutamic acid metabolic flux to produce gamma-amino butyric acid over proline in Nicotiana tabacum leaves under water stress relates to its significant role in antioxidant activity. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 53(8): 608-618. https://doi:10.1111/j.1744-7909.2011.01049.x.
  27. Manivannan, P., Jaleel, C.A., Sankar, B., Kishurekumar, A., Lakshmanan, G.M., & Panneerselvam, R. (2007). Growth, biochemical modifications and proline metabolism in Helianthus annuus L. as induced by drought stress. Journal of Colloids and Surfaces, Biointerfaces 59(2): 141-149. https://doi:10.1016/j.colsurfb.2007.05.002.
  28. Monakhova, O.F., & Chernyadev, I. (2002). Protective role of kartolin-4 in wheat plants exposed to soil drought. Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology 38(4): 373-380. https://doi:10.1023/A:1016243424428.
  29. Norooz pour, Gh., & Rezvani moghadam, P. (2005). The effect of different irrigation intervals and plant density on oil yield and essential oil of black seed (Nigella sativa L.). Journal of Research and Construction in Agriculture and Horticulture 3(2): 305-315. (In Persian with English abstract). https://doi:10.22067/gsc.v3i2.1313.
  30. Okafor, I.A., Ayalokunrin, M.B., & Orachu, L.A. (2014). A review on Portulaca oleracea (purslane) plant-its nature and biomedical benefits. International Journal of Biomedia Research 5(2): 75-80.
  31. Sedighi Moshkenani, F., Niknam, V., Sharifi, G., & Seifi Kalhor, M. (2020). An investigation of GABA effect on drought stress tolerance improvement in cultivated saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Journal of Plant Process and Function 9(39): 29-50. (In Persian with English abstract). https://doi:20.1001.1.23222727.1399.
  32. Shang, H., Cao, S., Yang, Z., Cai, Y., & Zheng, Y. (2011). Effect of exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid treatment on proline accumulation and chilling injury in peach fruit after long-term cold storage. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 59(4): 1264-1268. https://doi:10.1021/jf104424z.
  33. Shi, S.Q., Shi, Z., Jiang, Z.P., Qi, L.W., Sun, X.M., & Li, C.X. (2010). Effects of exogenous GABA on gene expression of Caragana intermedia roots under NaCl stress: regulatory roles for H2O2 and ethylene production. Journal of Plant, Cell Environment 33(2): 149-162. https://doi:10.1111/j.1365-3040.2009.02065.x.
  34. Shulaev, V., & Oliver, D.J. (2006). Metabolic and proteomic markers for oxidative stress. New tools for reactive oxygen species research. Journal of Plant Physiology 141(2): 367-372. https://doi:10.1104/pp.106.077925.
  35. Song, H., Xu, X., Hua, W., Wang, H., & Tao, Y. (2010). Exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid alleviates oxidative damage caused by aluminium and proton stresses on barley seedlings. Journal of Science Food Agriculture 90(9):1410-1416.
  36. Verbruggen, N., & Hermans, Ch. (2008). Proline accumulation in plants: a review. Journal of Amino acids 35(4): 753-759. https://doi:10.1007/s00726-008-0061-6.
  37. Virgona, J.M., & Barlow, E.W.R. (1991). Drought stress induces changes in the non-structural carbohydrate composition of wheat stems. Journal of Functional Plant Biology 18(3): 239-247. https://doi:10.1071/pp9910239.
  38. Wang, Y., Luo, Z., & Huang, H. (2014). Effect of exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) treatment on chilling injury and antioxidant capacity in banana peel. Scientia Horticulturae 168(4): 132-137. https://doi: 10.1016/j.scienta.2014.01.022.
  39. Xu, K., Chen, S., Li, T., Ma, X., Liang, X., Ding, X., & Liu, H. (2015). OsGRAS23 a rice GRAS transcription factor gene, is involved in drought stress response through regulating expression of stress responsive genes. Journal of Plant Biology 15(13): 141-154.


Volume 36, Issue 3 - Serial Number 55
November 2022
Pages 683-691
  • Receive Date: 18 November 2021
  • Revise Date: 04 December 2021
  • Accept Date: 09 January 2022
  • First Publish Date: 12 January 2022