Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Horticultural Science, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran

2 Department of Plant Protection, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran


Kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa) is rich in minerals, vitamins and antioxidants. Kiwi fruit is sensitive to ethylene and has high perishability. There are some physical and chemical methods to delay aging and maintain postharvest quality of fruits. Light irradiation is a physical and pollution-free method that has been reported to be effective in controlling fruit decay and increasing its shelf life. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) acts as an important signal in some physiological activities of the plant. SNP improved the quality and durability after fruit harvest in some fruits.Amino acids are effective in delaying the aging process and increasing the postharvest life of horticultural crops. Arginine plays an important and vital role in plant growth and development processes. The positive effect of arginine in increasing the shelf life of some fruits has been reported. The aim of this study was to increase the shelf life and quantitative and qualitative characteristics of ‘Hayward’ kiwi fruit after harvesting with the use of blue light, SNP and arginine.
Material and Methods
Healthy and uniform fruits were selected and exposed to blue light (6, 12 and 24 h) at a wavelength range of 470 nm by LED lamps, SNP (0.5, 1 and 2 mM) and arginine (0.5, 1 and 2 mM). The experiment was performed in a completely random design with 10 treatments in 3 replications with 30 plots and 10 fruits per plot. After immersing the fruits at different levels of arginine, SNP and distilled water (control treatment), the surface of the fruits was dried and then sterilized. The fruits were monitored daily and their quantitative and qualitative properties were recorded during the experiment. Parameters of shelf life, tissue firmness, flavor index, loss of fresh weight, proline, ionic leakage, malondialdehyde (MDA), and dry matter, as well the activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes were measured. Analysis of data obtained from sampling during the experimental period and laboratory were performed using SPSS statistical software and comparisons of means was done based on LSD statistical test.
Results and Discussion
The results showed that SNP at a concentration of 2 mM caused the highest shelf life (117.20 days) and the highest proline content (80.14 mg/kg) in kiwi fruits. The reason for this increased shelf life may be that SNP delays ethylene production process by activating the genetic and biochemical mechanisms, thus increase the postharvest life of ethylene-sensitive products. The highest firmness (4.56 kg/cm2) and the lowest fresh weight loss (1.26%) was obtained in fruits treated with 12 h of blue light. Some of the most important causes of this finding are that blue light delays the peak time of ethylene production, and as a fungal agent, reduces fruits decay after harvesting. The data showed that 12-h irradiation of blue light and 2 mM SNP caused a significant increase in the amount of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD and APX) of kiwifruit. Other traits such as flavor index, dry matter content, ion leakage and malondialdehyde were also measured. Blue light treatment can effectively reduce the decay of many fruits during postharvest storage. The study on kiwifruit showed that the qualitative treatments of different lights on various cultivars at different times had a significant effect on some physiological, morphological and gene expression traits. LED irradiation was found to be a suitable method for improving the quality of nutrients and the quality of flavor after harvest of some fruits. SNP was a good treatment to maintain fruit quality and improve disease resistance in kiwi cultivar ‘Bruno’ during storage. Fruits treatment with arginine is a promising technology to reduce cold and brown damages by stimulating the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Plant resistance to environmental stresses due to the use of arginine is in order to the effect of this substance on polyamine accumulation through increasing arginine decarboxylase and ornithine decarboxylase enzymes and increasing proline accumulation by enhancing ornithine amino-transferase enzyme activity as well as increasing nitric oxide through increasing the activity of nitric oxide synthase enzyme. Quality of kiwi fruit decreases during storage due to rapid softening and contamination with some fungi. In this study, effective treatments were used to reduce these complications. Overall, the results of this study showed that 2 mM SNP caused the highest shelf life. The highest firmness and the lowest fresh weight loss were observed in fruits treated with 12 h blue light. 12-h irradiation of blue light and 2 mM SNP caused a significant increase in the antioxidant enzymes of kiwifruit.


Main Subjects

©2023 The author(s). This is an open access article distributed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0), which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source.

  1. References

    1. Abdul-Qados, A.M.S. (2009). Effect of arginine on growth, yield and chemical constituents of wheat grown under salinity condition. Academic Journal of Plant Sciences, 2, 267–278.
    2. Alferez, F., Liao, H.L., & Burns, J.K. (2013). Blue light alters infection by Penicillium digitatum in tangerines. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 63, 11–15.
    3. Aliniaeifard, S., & Seifi Kalhor, M. (2017). Effects of blue light on photosynthesis of Tradescantia virginianaplants grown in different VPDs. Plant Researches Journal, 30(2), 420–428.
    4. Arasimowics, M., & Wieczoorek, J.F. (2007). Nitric oxide as a bioactive signaling molecule in plant stress responses. Plant Science, 172, 876–887.
    5. Babalar, M., Pirzad, F., Askari Sarcheshmeh, M.A., Talaei, A., & Lessani, H. (2018). Arginine treatment attenuates chilling injury of pomegranate fruit during cold storage by enhancing antioxidant system activity. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 137, 31–37.
    6. Ballester, A.R., & Lafuente, M.T. (2016). LED blue light-induced changes in phenolics and ethylene in citrus fruit: Implication in elicited resistance against Penicillium digitatum Food Chemistry, 218, 575–583.
    7. Bantis, F., Ouzounis, T., & Radoglou, K. (2016). Artificial LED lighting enhances growth characteristics on total phenolic content of Ocimum basilicum, but variably affects transplant success. Scientia Horticulturae, 198, 277–283.
    8. Barman,, Asrey, R., Pal, R.K., Kumar Jha, S., & Bhatia, K. (2015). Postharvest nitric oxide treatment reduces chilling injury and enhances the shelf-life of mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit during low-temperature storage. The Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology, 89(3), 253–260.
    9. Bates, L.S., Waldrenand, R.P., & Teare, I.D. (1973). Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies. Plant and Soil, 39, 205–207.
    10. Bidaki, S., Tehranifar, A., & Khorassani, R. (2018). Post-harvest shelf-life extension of fruits of two strawberry (Fragaria× ananassa) cultivars with amino acids application in soilless culture system. Journal of Soil and Plant Interactions, 9(2), 1–10.
    11. Chen, G.X., & Asada, K. (1989). Ascorbate peroxidase in tea leaves: occurrence of two isozymes and the differences in their enzymatic and molecular properties. Plant Cell Physiology, 30, 987–998.
    12. Choi, H.G., Moon, B.Y., & Kang, N.J. (2015). Effects of LED light on the production of strawberry during cultivation in a plastic greenhouse and in a growth chamber. Scientia Horticulturae, 189, 22–31.
    13. Dai, H., Ji, S., Zhou, X., Wei, B., Cheng, S., Zhang, F., Wang, F., & Zhou, Q. (2021). Postharvest effects of sodium nitroprusside treatment on membrane fatty acids of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum, cv. Bluecrop) fruit. Scientia Horticulturae, 288, 110307.
    14. FAO. (2013). Food and Agricultural Organization Database. Retrieved from
    15. Finardi, S., Hoffmann, T.G., Schmitz, F.R.W., Bertoli, S.L., Khayrullin, M., Neverova, O., Ponomarev, E., Goncharov, A., Kulmakova, N., Dotsenko, E., Khryuchkina, E., Shariati, M.A., & de Souza, C.K. (2021). Comprehensive study of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and ultraviolet-LED lights application in food quality and safety. Journal of Pure Applied Microbiology, 15(3), 1125–1135.
    16. Giannopolitis, C., & Ries, S. (1997). Superoxid desmutase. I: Occurence in higher plant. Plant Physiology, 59, 309–314.
    17. Gong, D., Cao, S., Sheng, T., Shao, J., Song, C., Wo, F., Chen, W., & Yang, Z. (2015). Effect of blue light on ethylene biosynthesis, signaling and fruit ripening in postharvest peaches. Scientia Horticulturae, 197, 657–664.
    18. Gong, T., Li, C., Bian, B., Wu, Y., Dawuda, M.M., & Liao, W. (2018). Advances in application of small molecule compounds for extending the shelf life of perishable horticultural products: A review. Scientia Horticulturae, 230, 25–34.
    19. Guo, Z., Ou, W., Lu, S., & Zhong, Q. (2006). Differential responses of antioxidative system to chilling and drought in four rice cultivars differing in sensitivity. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 44, 828–836.
    20. Hasan, M.M., Bashir, T., Ghosh, R., Lee, S.K., & Bae, H. (2017). An overview of LEDs' effects on the production of bioactive compounds and crop quality. Molecules, 22(9), 1420.
    21. Hasperue, J.H., Guardianelli, L., Rodoni, L.M., Chaves, A.L., & Martínez, G.A. (2016). Continuous white blue LED light exposition delays postharvest senescence of broccoli. Food Science and Technology, 65, 495–502.
    22. Heath, R.L., & Parker, L. (1968). Photoperoxidation in isolated chloroplasts: I. Kinetics and stoichiometry of fatty acid peroxidation. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 125, 189–198.
    23. Hogewoning, S.W., Trouwborst, G., Maljaars, H., Poorter, H., van Ieperen, W., & Harbinson, J. (2010). Blue light dose-responses of leaf photosynthesis, morphology, and chemical composition of Cucumis sativus grown under different combinations of red and blue light. Journal of Experimental Botany, 61, 3107–3117.
    24. In, B.C., Motomura, S., Inamoto, K., Doi, M., & Mori, G. (2007). Multivariate analysis of relation between preharvest environmental factors, postharvest morphological and physiological factors and vase life of cut ‘Asomi Red’ roses. Japanese Society for Horticultural Science, 76, 66–72.
    25. Jayarajan, S., & Sharma, R.R. (2018). Impact of nitric oxide on shelf life and quality of nectarine (Prunus persica nucipersica). Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 40(12), 207.
    26. Jerzy, M., Zakrzewski, P., & Schroeter-Zakrzewska, A. (2014). Effect of color of light on the opening of inflorescence buds and postharvest longevity of pot chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemum X grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitam). Acta Agrobotanica, 64(3), 13–18.
    27. Jin, P., Yao, D., Xu, F., Wang, H., & Zheng, Y. (2015). Effect of light on quality and bioactive compounds in postharvest broccoli florets. Food Chemistry, 172, 705–709.
    28. Kaya, C., Higges, D., & Kirnak, H. (2001). The effects of high salinity (NaCl) and supplementary phosphorus and potassium on physiology and nutrition development of spinach. Journal of Plant Physiology, 27(3-4), 47–59.
    29. Kiaeshkevarian, M., Raiesi, T., Moradi, B., Fattahi Moghadam, J., & Faghih Nasiri, M. (2023). A study on effects of chemical fertilizer and organic manures on kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa, cv. Hayward) quality during cold storage. Journal of Horticultural Science, 37(2), 307-324.
    30. Koushesh Saba,, & Moradi, S. (2017). Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) spray to maintain fruit quality andalleviate postharvest chilling injury of peach fruit. Scientia Horticulturae, 216, 193–199.
    31. Leshem, Y.Y., & Pinchasov, Y. (2000). Non-invasive photoacoustic spectroscopic determination of relative endogenous nitric oxide and ethylene content stoichiometry during the ripening of strawberries Fragaria anannasa (Duch.) and avocados Persea americana (Mill.). Journal of Experiment Botanic, 51, 1471–1473.
    32. Li, H.M., Tang, C.M., Xu, Z.G., Liu, X.Y., & Han, X.L. (2012). Effects of different light sources on the growth of non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris). Journal of Agricultural Science, 4, 262–273.
    33. Liao, H.L., Alferez, F., & Burns, J.K. (2013). Assessment of blue light treatments on citrus postharvest diseases. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 81, 81–88.
    34. Liao, W.B., Zhang, M.L., & Yu, J.H. (2013). Role of nitric oxide in delaying senescence of cut rose flowers and its interaction with ethylene. Scientia Horticulturae, 155, 30–38.
    35. Linh, T.T.T., Jitareerat, P., Aimlaor, S., Srilaong, V., Boonyaritthongchai, P., & Uthairatanakij, A. (2015). Applying of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on postharvest ‘Nam Dok Mai No.4’ mango fruits delay ripening and maintain quality. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 10(31), 3067–3072.
    36. Liu, S., Hu, L., Jiang, D., & Xi, W. (2019). Effect of postharvest LED and UV light irradiation on the accumulation of flavonoids and limonoids in the segments of newhall navel oranges (Citrus sinensis Osbeck). Molecules, 24(9), 1755.
    37. Ma, G., Zhang, L., Setiawan, C.K., Yamawaki, K., Asai, T., & Nishikawa, F. (2014). Effect of red and blue LED light irradiation on ascorbate content and expression of genes related to ascorbate metabolism in postharvest broccoli. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 94, 97–103.
    38. Mansouri, H. (2012). Salicylic acid and sodium nitroprusside improve postharvest life of chrysanthemums. Scientia Horticulturae, 145, 29–33.
    39. Nasibi, F., Barand, A., Manouchehri Kalantari, K., & Rezanejad, F. (2013). The effect of arginine pretreatment on germination, growth and physiological parameters in the increase of low temperature tolerance in Pistacia vera in vitro culture. International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences, 5(17), 1918–1925.
    40. Nasibi, F., Farahmand, H., Kamyab, A., & Alipour, S. (2014). Effects of arginine, cysteine and 5-sulfosalicylic acid on of vase life of tuberose cut flowers. Agricultural Communications, 2(2), 35–41.
    41. Neill, S., Barros, R., Bright, J., Desikan, R., Hancock, J., Harrison, J., & Wilson, I. (2008). Nitric oxide, stomatal closure, and abiotic stress. Journal of Experimental Botany, 59(2), 165–176.
    42. Piri, M., & Jabbarzadeh, Z. (2023). The effect of foliar application of salicylic acid, spermidine and sodium nitroprusside on some growth and flowering characteristics, photosynthetic pigments and vase life of Lisianthus ‘Mariachi Blue’. Journal of Horticultural Science, 36(4), 917-936.
    43. Poudel, P.R., Kataoka, I., & Mochioka, R. (2008). Effect of red and blue light emitting diodes on growth and morphogenesis of grapes. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 92, 147–153.
    44. Qiao, W., & Fan, L.M. (2008). Nitric oxide signaling in plant responses to abiotic stresses. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology, 10, 1238–1246.
    45. Ren, Y., He, J., Liu, H., Liu, G., & Ren, X. (2017). Nitric oxide alleviates deterioration and preserves antioxidant properties in ‘Tainong’ mango fruit during ripening. Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology, 58(1), 27–37.
    46. Saini, R.S. (2005). Laboratory manual of analytical techniques in horticulture. Agrobios, Jodhpur, India.
    47. Shi, L., Cao, S., Chen, W., & Yang, Z. (2014). Blue light induced anthocyanin accumulation and expression of associated genes in Chinese bayberry fruit. Scientia Horticulturae, 179, 98–102.
    48. Snelgar, W.S., & Hopkirk, G. (1988). Effect of overhead shading on yield and fruit quality of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa). Journal of Horticultural Science, 63(4), 731–742.
    49. Tavarani, S., Deglinnnocenti, E., Remorini, D., Massai, R., & Guidi, L. (2008). Antioxidant capacity ascorbic acid, total phenols and carotenoids changes during harvest and storage of ‘Hayward’ kiwifruit. Food Chemistry, 107, 282–288.
    50. Wang, X.Y., Gu, S., Chen, B., Huang, J., & Xing, J. (2017). Effect of postharvest L-arginine or cholesterol treatment on the quality of green asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) spears during low temperature storage. Scientia Horticulturae, 225, 788–794.
    51. Wills, R., & Li, Y.X. (2016). Use of arginine to inhibit browning on fresh cut apple and lettuce. Postharvest Biology Technology, 113, 66–68.
    52. Wills, R.B.H., Ku, V.V.V., & Leshem, Y.Y. (2000). Fumigation with nitric oxide to extend the postharvest life of strawberries. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 18, 75–79.
    53. Wollaeger, H.M., & Runkle, E.S. (2014). Growth of impatiens, Petunia, Salvia and tomato seedlings under blue, green, and red light-emitting diodes. HortScience, 49(6), 734–740.
    54. Wu, Q., Zhou, Y., Zhang, Z., Li, T., Jiang, Y., Gao, H., & Yun, Z. (2020). Effect of blue light on primary metabolite and volatile compound profiling in the peel of red pitaya. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 160, 111059.
    55. Xiaoying, L., Mingjuan, Y., Xiaodong, X., Abm, K., Atak, A., Caihong, Z., & Dawei, L. (2022). Effect of light on growth and chlorophyll development in kiwifruit ex vitro and in vitro. Scientia Horticulturae, 291, 110599.
    56. Xu, F., Cao, S.F., Shi, L.Y., Chen, W., Su, X.G., & Yang, Z.F. (2014). Blue light irradiation affects the anthocyanin content and enzymes activities involved in postharvest strawberry fruit. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 62, 4778–4783.
    57. Zhang, X., Shen, L., Li, F., Meng, D., & Sheng, J. (2013). Amelioration of chilling stress by arginine in tomato fruit: Changes in endogenous arginine catabolism. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 76, 106–111.
    58. Zhang, X., Shen, L., Li, F., Zhang Y., Meng D., & Sheng, J. (2011). Up-regulating arginase contributes to amelioration of chilling stress and the antioxidant system in cherry tomato fruits. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 90, 2195–2202.
    59. Zheng, F., Zheng, W., Li, L., Pan, S., Liu, M., Zhang, W., Liu, H., & Zhu, C. (2017). Chitosan controls postharvest decay and elicits defense response in kiwifruit. Food Bioprocess Technology, 10, 1937–1945.
    60. Zhu, S., & Zhou, J. (2006). Effects of nitric oxide on fatty acid composition in peach fruits during storage. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54, 9447–9452.
    61. Zhu, S., & Zhou, J. (2007). Effect of nitric oxide on ethylene production in strawberry fruit during storage. Food Chemistry, 100, 1517–1522.