Investigating Nano-Titanium Dioxide on the Morphological and Biochemical Characteristics of Some Strawberry Cultivars under Hydroponic Cultivation Conditions

Document Type : Research Article


1 MSc student, Department of Horticulture and Landscape, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Horticulture and Landscape, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, mashhad, Iran

3 Researcher and PhD, Department of Horticulture and Landscape, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, mashhad, Iran


 Today, in the commercial production of strawberries, short day cultivars  are used due to having large fruits of desirable quality. Among  the short  day cultivars available in Iranare Camarosa, Atabaki, Gaviota, Queen Aliza, Paros and McDonance, which can be cultivated at greenhouse. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles are one of the metal oxides that exist in three forms of rutile, brookite and anatase, which affect growth, enzymatic activity and photosynthesis. Reported titanium nano dioxide in the highest concentration used (11.5 mg/l) increases fruit formation  percentage, leaf chlorophyll content, vitamin C content, fruit  ripening index, fresh and dry weight of roots and shoots and yield of strawberries. In another study, it was shown that titanium dioxide treatment under drought stress can increase photosynthetic pigments, total soluble solids, vitamin C, phenol, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and antioxidant activity, and it also improved plant performance. increase the strawberry cultivar Ventana compared to the control treatment. In a research found that spraying titanium increases the biomass, fertility and quality of peach fruit. It has alsow been showed that the pomegranate size of flowers and fruits increased with using titanium nano dioxide, and this can increase the quantity and quality of Alberta peach cultivar. Foliar application of titanium nano dioxide in cucumber has been reported to increase photosynthesis  and  phenolic content  and reduce lipid peroxidation. In a research, it was shown that titanium dioxide nanoparticles increased photosynthesis rate, water conductivity and transpiration rate in tomato leaves. Despite the effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the quantitative and qualitative improvement of some agricultural products, the researches conducted on strawberry plants were not complete or were only conducted on a specific variety. Therefore, with the aim of investigating and comparing the morphological and biochemical traits of some commercial strawberry cultivars under the effect of foliar spraying with titanium­dioxide, the above research was conducted.
Materials and Methods
 This research was conducted to investigate the effect of nano titanium dioxide foliar spraying on four strawberry cultivars in the hydroponic greenhouse of the Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2020-2021. Experimental treatments included 4 levels of titanium nano dioxide (0, 5, 10 and 20 mg/l) and 4 strawberry cultivars (Sabrina, Paros, Gaviota and Camarosa) with 4 replications. The research was done in a factorial manner based on a completely random design. JMP 8 software was used to perform variance analysis and compare the averages of the measured traits. Means were compared using Tukey test at 5% probability level and graphs were drawn using Excel 2010 software.
Results and Discussion
 According to the tables of mutual effects of titanium dioxide nano treatments and varieties, it can be found that the application of titanium dioxide nanoparticles had a positive effect on the desired characteristics in all four studied strawberry varieties. So that the application of different levels of titanium dioxide nano particles causes a significant increase in quantitative traits (number of leaves, leaf area, root length, fresh and dry weight of aerial and root parts, photosynthetic pigments) The yield-dependent traits compared to the control plants were found in strawberry-strawberry cultivars. Nano titanium dioxide had an effect in increasing the number of fruits and vegetative traits of all investigated cultivars, in such a way that, on the one hand, with a balanced increase in vegetative growth, and on the other hand, improving the efficiency of photosynthesis and absorption through the roots and increasing the percentage of fruit formation. , increased the yield per plant. Also, sprinkling of titanium nanoparticles on all levels caused a significant increase in juice pH, TSS, TA, vitamin C, anthocyanin, total phenol, flavonoid and in general qualitative traits compared to the control. In the treatment of nano titanium dioxide, especially at the level of 10 mg/liter, better results were observed.

According to the results, the use of Paros and Gaviota cultivars is recommended to farmers and agricultural researchers due to its high yield and good quality.


Main Subjects

  1. Akhtar, A.N., Abbasi, A., & Hussain, A. (2010). Effect of calcium chloride treatments on quality characteristics of loquat fruit during storage. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 42(1), 181-188.
  2. Alcaraz, C., Botia, M., Carlos, F., & Fernando, R. (2004). Effect of foliar sprays containing calcium, magnesium and titanium on peach (Prunus persica L.) fruit quality. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 84(9), 949-954.
  3. Aminizade bezenjani, S. (2019). Study of the interaction of nanoparticles of titanium dioxide and selenium dioxide on increasing the resistance of tomato plant under salinity stress. University of Industrial and Advanced Technology.
  4. Arena, M.E., & Curvetto, N.S. (2008). Berberis buxifolia fruiting: Kinetic growth behavior and evolution of chemical properties during the fruiting period and different growing seasons. Scientia Horticulturae, 118, 120-127.
  5. Asadi Gharneh, H., Arzani, K., Shogaeyan, A., Golparvar, A., & Sabbaghnia, N. (2014). Evaluation of genetic diversity in some strawberry (Fragaria × annanasa Duch.) cultivars in Iran using morphological characteristics. Plant Productions, 4(37), 93-106.
  6. 6. Binesh, M., Mortazavi, A., Armin, M., & Moradi, M. (2010). Investigation of the use of titanium dioxide and silver nanocomposites in Mazafati date packaging on its microbial changes during storage. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2(1), 1-8.
  7. Chang, L., Wang, Q., & Mei, H. (2007). Effect of nanoparticles on the bacterial community of the cucumber phyllosphere. Chinese Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology, 6(2), 141-145.
  8. Dar, T.A., Uddin, M., Khan, M.M.A., Hakeem, K.R., & Jaleel, H. (2015). Jasmonates counter plant stress: a review. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 115, 49-57.
  9. Elghniji, K., Sabrine, S., Ben, Mosbah, M., Elimame, E., & Moussaoui, Y. (2014). Detoxification of 4-chlorophenolin TiO2 sunlight system: effect of raw and treated solution on seed germination and plants growth of various sensitive vegetables. Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry, 96, 869-879.
  10. Galili Marandi, R. (2007). Tiny fruits. Urmia University Jihad Publications 2: 240.
  11. Ghasemi, K., Emadi, S.M., & Ghasemi, Y. (2018). Effect of different culture media on broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) yield components and mineral elements concentration in soilless Culture. Journal of Horticultural Science 31(4), 694-704.
  12. Ghasemnezhad, M., Sherafati, M., & Payvast, G.A. (2011). Variation in phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity of five coloured bell pepper (Capsicum annunm) fruits at two different harvest times. Journal Scientia Functional Foods, 3(1), 44-49.
  13. Ghasemnezhad, M., Zareh, S., Rassa, M., & Sajedi, R.H. (2013). Effect of chitosan coating on maintenance of aril quality, microbial population and PPO activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum L. cv. Tarom( at cold storage temperature. Journal Science of Food Agriculture, 93(2), 368-374.
  14. Haghighi, M., & Daneshmand, B. (2012). Comparison of titanium and titanium nanoparticles on growth and photosynthesis of tomato in hydroponic system. Science and Technology of Greenhouse Cultures, 4(13), 73-79. (In persian).
  15. Hashemi Dehkourdi, E., Mousavi, M., Moallemi, N., & Ghafariyan moghareb, M.H. (2016). Effect of nanoparticles of titanium dioxide (anatase) on physiological characteristics of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa cv. Queen Elisa) in hydroponic condition.  Journal of Plant Process and Function, 5(16), 1-8. (In Persian with English abstract)
  16. Heschel, M.S., & Riginos, C. (2005). Mechanism of selection for drought stress tolerance and avoidance in Impatiens capensis (Balsaminaceae). American Journal of Botany, 92, 37-44.
  17. Hokmabadi, H., Haidarinezad, A., Barfeie, R., Nazaran, M., Ashtian, M., & Abotalebi, A. (2006). A new iron chelate introduction and their effects on photosynthesis activity chlorophyll content and nutrients uptake of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.). International Horticultural Congress and Exhibition. Seoul, Korea. August, 13-19.
  18. Hong, F., Yang, P., Gao, F., Liu, C., Zheng, L., Yang, F., & Zhou, J. (2005). Effect of nano-TiO2 on spectral characterization of photosystem II particles from spinach. Chemical Research in Chinese Universities, 21(2), 196–200.
  19. Hossain, M.R., Natarajan, S., Kim, H.T., Jesse, D.M.I., Lee, C.G., Park, J.I., & Nou, I.S. (2019). High density linkage map construction and QTL mapping for runner production in allo-octoploid strawberry Fragaria × ananassa based on ddRAD-seq derived SNPs. Scientific Reports, 9, 1-11.
  20. Jung, D.H., Kim, H.J., Choi, G.L., Ahn, T.I., Son, J.E., & Sudduth, K.A. (2015). Automated lettuce nutrient solution management using an array of ion-selective electrodes. Transactions of the ASABE, 58(5), 1309-1319.
  21. Khater, M.S. (2015). Effect of titanium nanoparticles (TiO2) on growth, yield and chemical constituents of coriander plants. Arab Journal of Nuclear Science and Applications, 48(4), 187-194.
  22. Kiafar, H., Mosavi, M., Ebadi, A., Moallemi, N., & Fattahi Moghaddam, M.R. (2019). Effect of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles on flower and fruit characteristics of early peach Alberta cultivar. 11th Iranian Congress of Horticultural Sciences, 11: 1-5.


  1. Li , J., Naeem, M.S., Wang, X., Liu, L., Chen, C., Ma, N., & Zhang, C. (2015). Nano- TiO2 is not phytotoxicas revealed by the oilseed rape growth and photosynthetic apparatus ultra-structural response. PLOS One, 10(12), p.e0143885.
  2. Lichtenthaler, H.K., & Buschmann, C. (2001). Extraction of photosynthetic tissues: chlorophylls and carotenoids. Food Analytical  Chemistry, F4. 2.1- F4. 2.6.
  3. Mahmoodzadeh, H., Aghili, R., & Nabavi, M. (2013). Physiological effects of TiO2 nanoparticles on wheat (Triticum aestivum). Journal of Engineering and Applied Science, 3(14), 1365-1370.
  4. Marschner, P. (2012). Marschner, s mineral nutrition of higher plants. (Academic Press: London). 651 pp.
  5. Mingyu, S., Xiao, W., Chao, L., Chunxiang, Q., Xiaoqing, L., Liang, C., & Fashui, H. (2007). Promotion of energy transfer and oxygen evolution in spinach photosystem II by nano-anatase TiO2. Biological Trace Element Research, 119(2), 183-192.
  6. Moradi, I. (2020). The effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on modulating the effects of water stress in strawberries under soilless cultivation conditions. Faculty of Agriculture. Kordestan University.
  7. Morteza, E., Moaveni, P., Farahani, H.A., & Kiyani, M. (2013). Study of photosynthetic pigments changes ofmaize (Zea mays L.) under nano TiO2 spraying at various growth stages. Springer Plus, 2(1), 247.
  8. Qi, M., Liu, Y., & Li, T. (2013). Nano-TiO2 improves the photosynthesis of tomato leaves under mild heat stress. Biological Trace Element Research, 156, 323-328.
  9. Rezaei, F., Moaveni, P., & Mozafari, H. (2015). Effect of different concentrations and time of nano TiO2 spraying on quantitative and qualitative yield of soybean (Glycine max L.) at Shahr-e-Qods, Iran. Biological Forum – An International Journal, 7(1), 957-964.
  10. Sadeghi, P., & Hasanpour, H. (2021). Effect of foliar application of nano-TiO2 on some quantitative and qualitative attributes of strawberry fruit (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) cv. Sabrina under deficit fertigation. Journal of Horticultural Sciences and Techniques of Iran, 22(3), 371-382.
  11. Siddiqi, K.S., & Husen,  A. (2016). Engineered  gold  nanoparticles  and  plant  adaptation  potential. Nanoscale  research  letters  11(1): 400.
  12. Siddiqi, K.S., &  Husen, A. (2017). Plant  response  to  engineered  metal  oxide  nanoparticles. Nanoscale  research  letters  12(1): 92.
  13. Song, C., Huang, M.C., White, J., Zhang, X., Wang, W., Kyei Sarpong, C., Jamali, Z.H., Zhang, H., Zhao, L., & Wang, Y. (2020). Metabolic profile and physiological response of cucumber foliar exposed to engineered MoS2 and TiO2 nanoparticles. Elsevier, 1-10.
  14. Taiz, L., & Zeiger, E. (2002). Plant Physiology. Sinauer Associates.
  15. Tanada-Palmu, P., & Grosso, C. (2005). Effect of edible wheat gluten-based films and coatings on refrigerated strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) quality. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 36, 199-208.
  16. Tang, Y., Ma, X., Li, M., & Wang, Y. (2020). The effect of temperature and light on strawberry producthin in a solar greenhouse. Solar Energy, 195, 318-328.
  17. Tehrani, A. (2014). The effect of foliar application of humic substances on some quantitative and qualitative characteristics of strawberry var. Camarosa. Ph.D Dissertation, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran. (In Persian).
  18. Todeschini, V., Aitlahmidi, N., Mazzucco, E., Marsano, F., Gosetti, F., & Robotti, E. (2018). Impact of beneficial microorganisms on strawberry growth, fruit production, nutritional quality, and volatilome. Frontiers in Plant Science, 9, 1611.
  19. Turhan, E., & Eris, A. (2005). Changes of micronutrients, dry weight, and chlorophyll contents in strawberry plants under salt stress conditions. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 36(7-8), 1021-1028.
  20. Yang, F., Hong, F., You, W., Liu, C., Gao, F., Wu, C., & Yang, P. (2006). Influence of nano-anatase TiO2 on the nitrogen metabolism of growing spinach. Biological Trace Element Research, 110(2), 179-190.
  21. Zheng, L., Hong, F., Lu, S., & Liu, C. (2005). Effect of nano-TiO2 on strength of naturally aged seeds and growth of spinach. Biological Trace Element Research, 104(1), 83-91.
  22. Zheng, L., Mingyu, S., Chao, L., Liang, C., Huang, H., Xiao, W., Xiaoqing, L., Yang, F., Gao, F., & Hong, F. (2007). Effects of nanoanatase  TiO2 on photosynthesis of spinach chloroplasts  under different  light  illumination.  Biological Trace Element Research, 119, 68-76.
  • Receive Date: 01 July 2022
  • Revise Date: 13 November 2022
  • Accept Date: 03 December 2022
  • First Publish Date: 06 December 2022