اثر قارچ تریکودرما بر صفات مورفوفیزیولوژیکی گیاه دارویی ریحان (>Ocimum basilicum L) در شرایط تنش آبی

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری فیزیولوژی تولید و پس از برداشت گیاهان دارویی، گروه علوم و مهندسی باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز،

2 دانشیار گروه علوم و مهندسی باغبانی، گرایش گیاهان دارویی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران

3 استادیار گروه علوم و مهندسی باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی اهر، تبریز، ایران.

4 استادیار گروه علوم و مهندسی باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی اهر، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران.

چکیده

مطالعه حاضر با هدف ارزیابی عملکرد کمی و کیفی گیاه ‏ریحان‎ در شرایط گلخانه‌‌‎ای تحت تأثیر تنش کمبود آب به‌همراه مایه‌زنی قارچ تریکودرما بر روی صفات ‏مورفولوژیکی از جمله عملکرد بخش هوایی (عملکرد اقتصادی ریحان)، رنگیزه‌های فتوسنتزی، درصد و عملکرد اسانس این گیاه انجام شد. ‏آزمایش به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح ‏پایه بلوک‎‌‎های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در گلخانه گروه علوم باغبانی دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی اهر و مطالعات آزمایشگاهی در آزمایشگاه‌های پایه و عمومی دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی اهر در سال 1398 و 1399 انجام گرفت. فاکتورهای ‏آزمایشی شامل سطوح مختلف تنش کمبود آّب (25، 50 و 75 درصد ظرفیت ‏مزرعه‌ای و تیمار شاهد یا 100 درصد ظرفیت مزرعه‌ای) و ‎یک گونه ‏تجاری قارچ تریکودرما ‏‎(Trichoderma harzianum Na-lac.)‎‏ با تراکم جمعیتی 109 و 106 اسپور در هر میلی‌لیتر مایه تلقیح ‏و تیمار شاهد بود. افزایش سطح تنش ‏کم‌آبی باعث کاهش عملکرد اقتصادی گیاه ریحان گردید. ‏با اعمال تنش کم‌آبی محتوای اسانس در تنش‌های ملایم (7/0 درصد) و متوسط (8/0 درصد) افزایش یافت ولی عملکرد اسانس تفاوت معنی‌داری با شاهد نداشت و ارتفاع بوته (28/0 سانتی‌متر)، تعداد برگ و رنگیزه‌های گیاهی تحت تنش کم‌آبی کاهش یافتند. با توجه به نتایج آزمایش می‌توان بیان کرد که قارچ تریکودرما با ‏تراکم جمعیتی 106 (اسپور در هر میلی‌لیتر مایه تلقیح) تأثیر بهتری بر بیشتر شاخص‌های رشد داشت، درحالی‌‏که تأثیر قارچ تریکودرما با تراکم جمعیتی ‏‏109 (اسپور در هر میلی‌لیتر مایه تلقیح) بر روی صفات مهمی مثل عملکرد وزن تر اندام هوایی (2/213 گرم)، درصد (7/0 درصد) و ‏عملکرد اسانس بیشتر بود. در نهایت نتایج ‏مشخص کرد که استفاده از قارچ تریکودرما در ‏مقایسه ‏با شاهد (بدون تلقیح با قارچ)‏‎ ‎در شرایط تنش کم‌آبی قابلیت بهبود رشد گیاه را داشته و منجر به افزایش کارایی گیاه در شرایط تنش کم‌آبی می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Trichoderma Fungus on the Morphophysiological Traits of the Basil Medicinal Plant (Ocimum basilicum L.) under Water Stress Conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mina Amani 1
  • Saeideh Alizadeh Salteh 2
  • Mohsen Sabzi Nojadeh 3
  • Mehdi Younessi Hamzekhanlu 4
1 PhD Student in Production and Post-Harvest Physiology of Medicinal Plants, Department of ‎Horticultural Science and Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.‎
2 Associate Professor, Department of Horticultural Science and Engineering, Orientation of Medicinal Plants, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Horticultural Science and Engineering, Ahar Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.
4 Assistant Professor, Horticultural Science and Engineering Department, Ahar Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Abstract

Introduction

Medicinal plants have long had a special place in the traditional ‎agricultural system of Iran and the use of these plants as medicine to prevent and treat diseases has been considered by ‎traditional medicine experts since ancient times. Medicinal plants with rich sources of secondary metabolites provide the ‎basic active ingredients of many medicines. Although the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites is genetically controlled, ‎but their construction is strongly influenced by environmental factors. One of the important climatic factors that affect the ‎distribution of plants around the world and can cause morphological, physiological and biochemical changes in the plant is ‎the lack of available water. Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) seems to show little resistance to water stress. For this reason, there is a need for protective mechanisms for the ‎basil plant against stress due to water shortage. Plants are able to reduce or eliminate the effects of water shortage ‎stress by coexisting with a number of soil microorganisms. ‎Coexistence relationship plant with T. harzianum fungi is one of the ways to reduce dehydration ‎in plants. These mushrooms by altering some of the root properties and absorbing nutrients in the host plants, they reduce ‎the destructive effects of water shortage stress. Observing the positive effect of these fungi in increasing the absorption of nutrients from the soil, improving plant water relations, increasing water use efficiency in plants and finally increasing plant resistance to water deficit stresses on the one hand and on the other hand. The existence of water crises in different countries has prompted researchers to further study this aspect of the symbiotic relationship between the host plant and Trichoderma harzianum. ‎

Materials and Methods

Present study was performed to investigate the effect of T. harzianum on the antioxidant properties of Ocimum basilicum under water deficit stress. Present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of an endophytic fungi namely T. harzianum on the shoot yield, photosynthetic pigments, content and yield of essential oil from O. ‎basilicum under water deficit stress. All experiments were performed as the factorial in completely randomized design blocks with three replications in greenhouse condition. The experimental factors were the various irrigation regimes including 100, 75, 50 and 25% of field capacity and two concentrations of the T. harzianum (106 and 109 CFU/ml). At the beginning of flowering, water deficit stress was applied at four levels of 25, 50, 75 and the control treatment (100 percent) of field capacity until three weeks later. The application of water stress was such that the pots were weighed daily and the moisture deficiency in each treatment was removed by watering the pots until reaching the desired treatment level. After applying the stress, sampling and measuring traits were done at the full flower stage. After the plants reach the full flowering period, various traits including plant height, number of leaves, fresh and dry weight yield of the plant (as the economic yield of basil) and fresh and dry weight yield of roots per square meter, chlorophyll a, b, total (T), carotenoid, colonization percentage, yield and essential oil content were measured in all the plants in the pots.

Results and Discussion

Increasing the level of water stress reduced the economic performance of basil (O. basilicum). Coexistence with Trichoderma reduced the destructive effects of dehydration on the plant. With the application of dehydration stress, the essential oil content increased in mild and moderate stresses, but the yield of essential oil did not differ significantly from the control and plant height, number of leaves and plant pigments decreased under dehydration stress. According to the experimental results, it can be said that Trichoderma with a population density of 106 (spores per ml of inoculum) had a better effect on most growth indices, while the effect Trichoderma with a population density of 109 (spores per milliliter of inoculum) on important traits such as shoot fresh weight yield (212.2 g), percentage (0.7%) and essential oil yield It was higher. According to the obtained results, it can be stated that inoculation of basil with Trichoderma increased the percentage and yield of essential oil in both water stress and non-stress conditions, and considering that in cultivation of plants the goal is to increase the effective substance. It is in these plants.

Conclusions

Finally, the results indicated that the use of Trichoderma mushroom in comparison with the control (without inoculation with the fungus) under water stress conditions has the ability to improve plant growth and leads to an increase in plant efficiency under water stress conditions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Abiotic stress
  • Aerial part performance
  • Essential oil
  • Morphological traits
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مقالات آماده انتشار، پذیرفته شده
انتشار آنلاین از تاریخ 18 تیر 1402
  • تاریخ دریافت: 06 بهمن 1401
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 31 اردیبهشت 1402
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 14 تیر 1402
  • تاریخ اولین انتشار: 18 تیر 1402