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سیده مرضیه نوراشرف الدین محمد فارسی فرج اله شهریاری جواد جانپور

چکیده

قارچ خوراکی دکمه¬ای سفید (Agaricusbisporus) رایج¬ترین قارچ خوراکی در ایران و دنیا است، اما بهدلایلی از جمله استفاده از نژادهای کم محصول وپسروی نژادی، عملکرد این قارچ درکشور کمتر از متوسط عملکرد آن در دنیا می¬باشد. یکی از برنامه¬های به نژادی،تولید نژاد F1 حاصل از آمیزش هموکاریون¬ها است که مستلزم در اختیار داشتن جدایه¬های هموکاریون می¬باشد. در این مطالعه ابتدا 160جدایه تک¬اسپور کند رشد از نژاد A15 جداسازی شد و سپس براساس ویژگی¬های مورفولوژیک، از بین آنها 18 نمونه بررسی و انتخاب شدند. در مرحله¬ی بعد، از نشانگر هم¬بارز ریزماهواره (SSR) جهت شناسایی هموکاریون¬ها استفاده شد. ده آغازگر که در نمونه¬های شاهد مادری دارای چندشکلی بودند برای نمونه¬های مورد آزمایش نیز استفاده شدند. جدایه¬ها براساس حضور و عدم حضور باندهای چندشکل در دو گروه کلی هتروآللیک و هموآللیک قرار گرفتند و هفت جدایه که در تمامی جایگاه¬های بررسی شده الگوی باندی تک باند نشان دادند به عنوان جدایه¬ی هموکاریون در نظر گرفته شدند. به منظور محاسبه سطح تنوع ژنتیکی بین 7 جدایه هموکاریون به دست آمده، ماتریس فاصله ژنتیکی با استفاده از نرم¬افزار NTSYSpcمحاسبه شد و دندروگرام مربوطه ترسیم گردید. تشابه ژنتیکی جفت نمونه¬ها بین 17/0 تا 67/0متغیربود. در مرحله¬ی بعد نمونه¬های شماره¬ 4 و 8 با بیشترین فاصله ژنتیکی نسبت به سایر نمونه¬ها جهت تشکیل هیبرید در تلاقی شرکت داده شدند. نتیجه این تلاقی، تولید هیبرید N1 بود که با افزایش ناگهانی در رشد و تولید میسلیوم هوایی در محل الحاق همراه بود که در مقایسه با والدهای هموکاریون، سرعت رشد بیشتری داشت. در ادامه، جهت تأیید مولکولی هیبرید حاصل، واکنش
PCR-SSR با استفاده از یک پرایمر (AbSSR 45) انجام گرفت. همانطور که انتظار می¬رفت در هیبرید N1 همانند نمونه¬ی شاهد هتروکاریون، دو باند قابل امتیازدهی حاصل شد که نشان¬دهنده¬ی وجود دو هسته¬ی غیرخواهری در هر واحد سلولی آن می¬باشد. نتایج نشان دادند که با استفاده از نشانگر SSR می¬توان با احتمالی بیش از 8/99 درصد نسبت به قطعیت هموکاریونی پس از اجرای آزمایش با 10 آغازگر دست یافت و به این ترتیب از آنها در برنامه¬های اصلاحی جهت تولید هیبرید بهره برد.

جزئیات مقاله

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ارجاع به مقاله
نوراشرف الدینس. م., فارسیم., شهریاریف. ا., & جانپورج. (2017). غربالگری هموکاریون ها و تولیدنژاد دورگ جدید قارچ دکمه‌ای سفید (Agaricusbisporus) با استفاده از نشانگر ریزماهواره. علوم باغبانی, 31(3), 621-633. https://doi.org/10.22067/jhorts4.v31i3.64159
نوع مقاله
علمی - پژوهشی