عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction: Nowadays, mushroom and fungi are one of the most promising organisms which are used in biotechnology research (industry, medicine and agriculture). In the meantime, medicinal mushroom (mostly consumed as edible and medicinal products) have become a valuable biological resourcesin the pharmaceutical industry. Ganoderma the most legendary species of fungi in China with a long history dating back more than two thousand years.Ganodermalucidum (Fr.) Karst isa species belonging to the order of Aphyllophorales and family Basidiomycetes. The mushroom only growth on two or three types of trees among 10,000 known trees in the world and therefore is very rare. Ganoderma fruiting bodies and spores contain about 400 different bioactive compounds, which mainly includeTriterpenes, polysaccharides, nucleotides, sterols, steroids, fatty acids, proteins andpeptides. The mushroom polysaccharides, in addition to cancer treatment have showed antiviral properties, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive and prevent blood clotting. Tavana et al (1) in the evaluation of the use of some agricultural and forest wastes material for production of the mushroom stated that the residue are suitable as a helpful supplements for the activity. Gonzalez-Matute et al (11) used sunflower seed shell after oil extraction as a substrate. They concluded that the sunflower seed shell can be used as the main energy source in the substrate to grow the mushroom. There are different agricultural wastematerials which are good sources for growing mushroom in our country. The use of agricultural residues has attracted much attention in recent years. To the best of our knowledge there are a few published studieson the production of Ganoderma in the field condition. This study was performed on Reishi mushroom (Ganodermalucidum) to investigate the effects of different agricultural wastes on some morphological characteristics (growth rate, fresh weight and dry weight of mycelia, biological yield andcrude polysaccharide content) and polysaccharide contents of fruits.
Material and Methods:The main portion of the medium for production of Ganodermalucidum was wood chips as 5-10 mm long that supplemented with different agricultural wastes included black seed waste, tea waste, hazelnut waste, coconut waste, almond wasteand sesame waste, with two types of bran (wheat and rice). The statistical design was afactorial experiment on the basis of completely randomized design with threereplications. The treatment were included
Wood chips (80 percent) + black seed waste (10 percent) + rice bran (10 percent)
Wood chips (80 percent) + tea waste (10 percent) + rice bran (10 percent)
Wood chips (80 percent) + sesame waste (10 percent) + rice bran (10 percent)
Wood chips (80 percent) + hazelnut waste (10 percent) + rice bran (10 percent)
Wood chips (80 percent) + coconut waste (10 percent) + rice bran (10 percent)
Wood chips (80 percent) + black seed waste (10 percent) + wheat bran (10 percent)
Wood chips (80 percent) + almond waste (10 percent) + wheat bran (10 percent)
Wood chips (80 percent) + sesame waste (10 percent) + wheat bran (10 percent)
Wood chips (80 percent) + hazelnut waste (10 percent) + wheat bran (10 percent)
Wood chips (80 percent) + coconut waste (10 percent) + wheat bran (10 percent)
At first Wood chips soaked in water for 2 days until the their moisture reached60-65 then the other agricultural waste materials added on the basis of the treatments and the autoclavable propylene bags filledwith the mixture and autoclaved for 2 hours at 121ºC. After cooling, all bags inoculated with wheat spawn of the Ganodermalucidium and the bags putunderdark condition in growth chamber with 85-95% humidity at 30ºC. After full colonization of the bags, they transfer to the light condition (200-500 Lux) at 25ºC until primordial formation. Then the light increased to 500-700 Lux until fruiting body formation.
Results and Discussion: The results of analysis of variance showed that the use of these agricultural wastes had a significant effect (P≤0.01) on growth rate, fresh weight, dry weight of myceliumand biological yield. The highest growth rate of mycelia (on the basis of days after inoculation to medium colonized completely) was detected in media enriched with tea waste, hazelnut waste, coconut waste and almond waste (15.33, 16.67, 15.33 and 14.33 days, respectively). The lowest growth rate of mycelium was detected in media enriched with black seed waste (30.33 days). The substrate supplemented with almond waste produced the highest amount of fresh fruit weight (31 g) and the lowest fresh fruit weight (15.74 g) was detected under coconut waste treatment. The highest amount of fruit dry weight (6.51 g) observed under the almond waste treatment and the lowest one observed under the coconut waste treatment (3.75 g). The media supplemented with almond wastes produced the highest biological yield (7.75%), but tea waste, hazelnut waste and coconut waste treatments had the lowest biological yield (4.75, 5.32, 5.27 and 3.93 percent, respectively) without significant differences (P≤0.01).