تأثیر ضایعات مختلف کشاورزی بر برخی از عوامل رشد، عملکرد و میزان پلی‌ساکارید خام میوه‌ قارچ دارویی ریشی (Ganoderma lucidum)

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

این پژوهش به منظور بررسی تاثیر ضایعات مختلف کشاورزی همراه با تراشه چوب بر برخی ویژگی‌های فیزیولوژیکی و پلی‌ساکارید میوه قارچ دارویی ریشی انجام شد. ضایعات کشاورزی شامل تفاله‌ سیاه دانه، تفاله چای، تفاله فندق، تفاله نارگیل، تفاله بادام و تفاله کنجد بودند و با دو نوع سبوس (گندم و برنج) به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با 3 تکرار مقایسه شد. نتیجه‌های تجزیه واریانس نشان داد که نوع ضایعات کشاورزی استفاده شده بر سرعت رشد میسلیوم، وزن تر، وزن خشک و عملکرد زیستی قارچ ریشی در سطح 1 درصد معنی‌دار است. بیشترین سرعت رشد میسلیوم بدون اختلاف معنی‌دار مربوط به تفاله‌های چای، فندق، نارگیل و بادام (به ترتیب 33/15، 67/16، 33/15 و 33/14 روز تا پر شدن بستر از میسلیوم) و کمترین سرعت رشد میسلیوم در تیمار تفاله سیاه‌دانه (33/30 روز تا پر شدن بستر از میسلیوم) بود. تیمار تفاله بادام بیشترین وزن تر (31 گرم) و تیمار تفاله نارگیل کمترین وزن تر (74/15 گرم) را داشت. بالاترین وزن خشک در تفاله‌ بادام (51/6 گرم) و کمترین وزن خشک در تیمار تفاله‌ نارگیل (75/3 گرم) دیده شد. تیمار تفاله بادام بیشترین عملکرد زیستی(75/7 درصد) و تیمار تفاله‌های سیاه‌دانه، چای، فندق و نارگیل بدون اختلاف معنی‌دار کمترین عملکرد زیستی را داشتند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Different Agricultural Wastes on Some Growth Factors, Yield and Crude Polysaccharide Content of Fruit of “Reishi” A Medicinal Mushroom

نویسندگان [English]

  • Masoud Azimi
  • Majid Azizi
  • Mohamad Farsi
  • Hosin Nemati
Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Nowadays, mushroom and fungi are one of the most promising organisms which are used in biotechnology research (industry, medicine and agriculture). In the meantime, medicinal mushroom (mostly consumed as edible and medicinal products) have become a valuable biological resourcesin the pharmaceutical industry. Ganoderma the most legendary species of fungi in China with a long history dating back more than two thousand years.Ganodermalucidum (Fr.) Karst isa species belonging to the order of Aphyllophorales and family Basidiomycetes. The mushroom only growth on two or three types of trees among 10,000 known trees in the world and therefore is very rare. Ganoderma fruiting bodies and spores contain about 400 different bioactive compounds, which mainly includeTriterpenes, polysaccharides, nucleotides, sterols, steroids, fatty acids, proteins andpeptides. The mushroom polysaccharides, in addition to cancer treatment have showed antiviral properties, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive and prevent blood clotting. Tavana et al (1) in the evaluation of the use of some agricultural and forest wastes material for production of the mushroom stated that the residue are suitable as a helpful supplements for the activity. Gonzalez-Matute et al (11) used sunflower seed shell after oil extraction as a substrate. They concluded that the sunflower seed shell can be used as the main energy source in the substrate to grow the mushroom. There are different agricultural wastematerials which are good sources for growing mushroom in our country. The use of agricultural residues has attracted much attention in recent years. To the best of our knowledge there are a few published studieson the production of Ganoderma in the field condition. This study was performed on Reishi mushroom (Ganodermalucidum) to investigate the effects of different agricultural wastes on some morphological characteristics (growth rate, fresh weight and dry weight of mycelia, biological yield andcrude polysaccharide content) and polysaccharide contents of fruits.

Material and Methods:The main portion of the medium for production of Ganodermalucidum was wood chips as 5-10 mm long that supplemented with different agricultural wastes included black seed waste, tea waste, hazelnut waste, coconut waste, almond wasteand sesame waste, with two types of bran (wheat and rice). The statistical design was afactorial experiment on the basis of completely randomized design with threereplications. The treatment were included

Wood chips (80 percent) + black seed waste (10 percent) + rice bran (10 percent)
Wood chips (80 percent) + tea waste (10 percent) + rice bran (10 percent)
Wood chips (80 percent) + sesame waste (10 percent) + rice bran (10 percent)
Wood chips (80 percent) + hazelnut waste (10 percent) + rice bran (10 percent)
Wood chips (80 percent) + coconut waste (10 percent) + rice bran (10 percent)
Wood chips (80 percent) + black seed waste (10 percent) + wheat bran (10 percent)
Wood chips (80 percent) + almond waste (10 percent) + wheat bran (10 percent)
Wood chips (80 percent) + sesame waste (10 percent) + wheat bran (10 percent)
Wood chips (80 percent) + hazelnut waste (10 percent) + wheat bran (10 percent)
Wood chips (80 percent) + coconut waste (10 percent) + wheat bran (10 percent)

At first Wood chips soaked in water for 2 days until the their moisture reached60-65 then the other agricultural waste materials added on the basis of the treatments and the autoclavable propylene bags filledwith the mixture and autoclaved for 2 hours at 121ºC. After cooling, all bags inoculated with wheat spawn of the Ganodermalucidium and the bags putunderdark condition in growth chamber with 85-95% humidity at 30ºC. After full colonization of the bags, they transfer to the light condition (200-500 Lux) at 25ºC until primordial formation. Then the light increased to 500-700 Lux until fruiting body formation.

Results and Discussion: The results of analysis of variance showed that the use of these agricultural wastes had a significant effect (P≤0.01) on growth rate, fresh weight, dry weight of myceliumand biological yield. The highest growth rate of mycelia (on the basis of days after inoculation to medium colonized completely) was detected in media enriched with tea waste, hazelnut waste, coconut waste and almond waste (15.33, 16.67, 15.33 and 14.33 days, respectively). The lowest growth rate of mycelium was detected in media enriched with black seed waste (30.33 days). The substrate supplemented with almond waste produced the highest amount of fresh fruit weight (31 g) and the lowest fresh fruit weight (15.74 g) was detected under coconut waste treatment. The highest amount of fruit dry weight (6.51 g) observed under the almond waste treatment and the lowest one observed under the coconut waste treatment (3.75 g). The media supplemented with almond wastes produced the highest biological yield (7.75%), but tea waste, hazelnut waste and coconut waste treatments had the lowest biological yield (4.75, 5.32, 5.27 and 3.93 percent, respectively) without significant differences (P≤0.01).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Agriculture residue
  • Active substances
  • Biological yield
  • Medicinal mushroom
1-Azimi M., Azizi M., Farsi M., Neamati H. 2014. The Study on the Effect of Different Agricultural Waste Materials on Mycelial Growth, Fresh and Dry Fruit Yield of Ganoderma lucidum. 1st Conference on Environment, May, 22. Isfahan.
2-Azimi M., Azizi M., Zandavifard Zh. 2013. Medicinal Properties of Ganoderma lucidum, A Review, 1st. National Congress of Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resources. Jan, 20, Tehran.
3-Azizi M., Pourianfar H., and Oroojalian F. 2012. Medicinal Mushroom: Their therapeutic Properties and Current Medical Usage with Special Emphasis on Cancer Treatments. Jahade Daneshgahi Mashhad Publisher, 200pp.
4-Azizi M., Tavana M., Farsi M., and Oroojalian F. 2012. Yield Performance of Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.:Fr.). International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, 14: 521–527.
5- Babu P., and R.S. Subhasree. 2008. The Sacred Mushroom “Reishi”-A Review. American-Eurasian Journal of Botany, 1 (3): 107-110.
6-Chen A.W. 2004. "Mushrooms Worldwide. Part III. Mushrooms for the tropics. Growing Ganoderma mushrooms." Mushroom Growers' Handbook 1: 224-234.
7-Fasidi I.O., and Kadiri M. 1993. Use of agricultural wastes for the cultivation of Lentinus submundus (Poluporales: Polyporacea) in Nigeria. Revista de Biologia Tropical, 41, 411–415.
8-Gao, Y., Lan J., Dai X., Ye J., and Zhou S.H. 2004. A phase I/II study of Ling Zhi mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. (W. Curt.: Fr.) Lloyd (Aphyllophoromycetideae) extract in patients with type II diabetes mellitus. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, 6: 33-40.
9-Ghods Vali A. 2009. Cultivation and Production of Edible and Medicinal Mushroom. Nashre-Elme Keshawarzi, Tehran, 218pp.
10-Gonzalez-Matute R., Figlas D., Devalis R., Delmastro S., and Curvetto N. 2002. Sunflower seed hulls as a main nutrient source for cultivating Ganoderma lucidum. Micologia Aplicada International, 14: 19-24.
11-Gurung, O.K., Budathoki U., and Parajuli G. 2013. Effect of Different Substrates on the Production of Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.: Fr.) Karst. Our Nature, 10: 191-198.
12-Mizuno T., Wang G., Zhang J., Kawagishi H., Nishitoba T., and Li J. 1995. Reishi, Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma tsugae: Bioactive substances and medicinal effects. Food Review International, 11: 151-166.
13-Peksen A., and Yakupoglu G. 2009. Tea waste as a supplement for the cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 25: 611-618.
14-Roberts L. 2004. Australian ganoderma: Identification, Growth and Antibacterial Properties. Dissertation. Environment and Biotechnology Center School of Engineering and Science Swinburne University of Technology.
15-Rossi I.H., Monteiro A.C., Machado J.O., Andrioli J.L., and Barbosa J.C. 2003. Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) production on a sterilized bagasse substrate enriched with rice bran and sugarcane molasses. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 34: 66- 71.
16-Sanodiya B.S., Thakur G.S., Baghel R.K., Prasad G.B.K.S., and Bisen P.S. 2009. Ganoderma lucidum: a potent pharmacological macrofungus. Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, 10: 717-742.
17-Skalicka-Woźniak, K., Szypowski J., Łoś R., Siwulski M., Sobieralski K., Głowniak K., and Malm. A. 2012. Evaluation of polysaccharides content in fruit bodies and their antimicrobial activity of four Ganoderma lucidum (W Curt.: Fr.) P. Karst. Strains cultivated on different wood type substrates. Acta Societatis Botanical Polonia, 81(1):17-21.
18-Tavana M., Azizi M., Farsi M. 2010. The study on the effect of medium type and constituents, pH and Temparature on production of Ganoderma lucidum in laboratory experiment. Master dissertation, Ferdwosi University of Mashhad. 115 p.
19-Wasser S.P. 2002. Medicinal mushrooms as a source of antitumor and immunomodulating polysaccharides, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Journal, 60:258-274.
20-Wasser S.P., and Weis A.L. 1999. Medicinal Properties of Substances occurring in higher basidiomycetes Mushrooms: Current Perspectives (Review). International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms. 1(1): 31-62.