بررسی اثر چهار نوع لایه پوششی بر خواص فیزیکی-شیمیایی میوه انار (رقم میخوش)

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه شهرکرد

چکیده

در این پژوهش، تأثیر تیمارهای پوششی عصاره ی پوست انار، محلول کیتوزان 1 درصد، پارافین مایع و ژل آلوئه ورا در دمای 4 درجه سانتی گراد به مدت 105 روز انبارداری بر روی عمر انبارمانی و برخی صفات فیزیکی و شیمیایی میوه انار رقم میخوش مورد مطالعه قرار گرفته است. صفات اندازه‌گیری شده عبارت بودند از درصد کاهش وزن، درصد سرمازدگی، pH، اسیدیته، سفتی، مقدار مواد جامد محلول، مقدار رنگ و شدت رنگ. نتایج نشان داد که تیمار پوششی بر روی تمام صفات مورد بررسی اثر معنی دار داشته است در حالیکه زمان انبارداری فقط بر روی صفت‌های pH، درصد کاهش وزن، درصد سرمازدگی، اسیدیته و مقدار مواد جامد محلول اثر معنی دار داشته است. نمونه های پوشش داده شده با محلول کیتوزان 1 درصد، نسبت به شاهد و دیگر تیمارهای پوششی افت وزن بیشتری را نشان داد. سفتی بافت انارهای پوشش داده شده با پارافین مایع با گذشت زمان نسبت به نمونه شاهد و دیگر تیمارهای پوششی نیزکاهش بیشتری را نشان داد. همچنین میزان مواد جامد محلول نیز در انارهای پوشش داده شده با محلول کیتوزان 1 درصد با گذشت زمان نسبت به نمونه شاهد و دیگر تیمارهای پوششی افزایش بیشتری را نشان داد. در بین پوشش‌های اعمال شده بر روی انارها پوشش عصاره پوست انار علاوه برحفظ کیفیت ظاهری میوه و دانه‌های آن کمترین درصد سرمازدگی را نسبت به سایر نمونه‌ها نشان داد که تأیید کننده تأثیر مطلوب این تیمار بر نگهداری میوه در انبار سرد است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Four Type Coating Layers on Some Physico-Chemical Properties of Pomegranate (Maikhosh Cultivar)

نویسندگان [English]

  • manizhe khanian
  • davood ghanbarian
shahrekord University
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Because of harvesting of widespread volume of pomegranate production in a short time from late summer to early autumn and due to the lack of appropriate conditions of storage, a large part of which is lost prior to the market presentation or its cost is reduced due to the widespread presentation. Some studies investigated different methods for long-term storage of pomegranate, including use of alternative heating, low temperature, controlled atmosphere and growth plant regulators. Pomegranates are usually kept at temperatures below 5 °C only for 2 months, and then, frostbite to form of surface stains, skin browning; discolouration and browning of Arils and separator membrane are appeared. However, sensitivity to frostbite is a major problem for pomegranate storage, but generally the most important limiting factor for pomegranate storage is the growth and development of fungal contaminations, especially on the part of the throat. This problem is usually intensified at temperatures above 5 °C to prevent frostbite pomegranate. Therefore, for long-term storage of pomegranate, dual problem exists. It means that to reduce frost, we have to use higher temperatures or plastic covers, and on the other hand all these conditions can intensify the fungal decay in pomegranate. Recently, the interest of consumers has increased to food products with better quality, fresher and easier access. In this regard, packaging materials and packaging methods with the use of modern and appropriate techniques play vital role in reducing food wastes and production which is caused to healthier products. Considering the importance of extended life storage along with the preservation of favorite pomegranate quality, so the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of four types of coverage on the quality of pomegranate.
Materials and Methods: Maikhosh pomegranate cultivar was used for this study. Samples were taken directly from the Najaf Abad city orchards at the same conditions. Fruit weight was measured at the beginning of the experiments using a digital balance and then pomegranate samples were coated and stored at 4 °C for 105 days and every 35 days, the physical and chemical properties of pomegranates were measured. Initial weight of the samples stored were measured every 35 days and the percent of weight loss was calculated using Equation (initial weight-secondary weight / initial weight) × 100. In addition, the outer skin browning of fruits as one of the frostbite indices was examined. The sphericity coefficient i.e., the degree of similarity of each sample to sphere was expressed as Q = (abc) ^(1/3) / a ×100 The total surface area of the samples was determined using relationship S= π〖((abc)〗^(1/3))^2. Area brown skin of the samples was calculated by application of Imag j software. The percent of browning index was calculated by relationship (brown area of sample)/( total surface sample area), and each percentage of browning fruit were given from zero to five and frostbite percent was measured using relationship, percent of frostbite = (marks total ×100)/(number of biopsied sample×5). Firmness was measured using a manually penetrometer (ABI-ASA, Netherlands) equipped with a probe with 8 mm diameter. The pH values were measured using a pH-meter (MTT65, Iran) for the measurement of pH, 1 ml of pomegranate juice was mixed with 9 ml of distilled water using two device buffer solution with pH = 4 and pH =7. The TA was determined by mixing 1 ml of pomegranate juice with 9 ml of distilled water in the presence of phenolphthalein and titrating with 0.1 mol L-1 NaOH (PH 8.1) and using a calculated relationship TA=(M×0/0064×100)/W. TSS contents were recorded in a soluble refractometer (ATAGO, Japan) with values being expressed as 0Brix. The color content and intensity were measured using strewing pomegranate juice into centrifuge tubes with length of 20 ml and was centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 15 minutes. Then, the absorbance within 420-520 nm was measured in a spectrophotometer, and finally the color content and intensity was calculated by A520 + A420 and A420 /A520, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS software. Differences among means were tested for significance by ANOVA procedures and LSD test.
Results and Discussion: The analysis results showed that the coating treatments had a significant effect on all properties while storage period had a significant effect only on pH, percent of weight loss, frosting percent, acidity and soluble solids content. The samples coated by chitosan solvent 1% showed greatly weight loss in comparison with other coating treatments. Because the high concentration of chitosan causes preservation moisture between chitosan and skin of fruit that this could increase the activity of the aerobic pathogens, decay and higher weight loss. Firmness of fruits coated by liquid paraffin greatly reduced during storage period in comparison with other coating treatments. The soluble solids content of fruits covered by chitosan solvent 1% showed greatly an increase during storage period in comparison with other coating treatments. Coating treatments had a significant effect on the color content and intensity at level of 0.05 and 0.01, respectively. The coating aloevera gel treatment showed the lowest color intensity and content which suggests maintaining anthocyanin pigments and reducing brown pigments in samples. Among all coating treatments, the pomegranate peel extract indeed of conservation of apparent quality of fruits and seeds, showed the lower frosting percent approving the favorable effect of this treatment on the preservation of fruit in cold storage.
Conclusions: The results showed that among applied coatings, pomegranate peel extract is the best option due to the conservation of apparent quality of fruits and seeds as well as the lower frosting percent. The coating treatments aloevera gel and pomegranate peel extract showed the lowest color content and intensity and they are more appropriate options due to conservation of transparency and color red, respectively. Therefore, the treatment coating pomegranate peel extract and aloevera gel were chosen as the best options in pomegranate storage.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Aloevera gel
  • Pomegranate peel extract
  • Soluble solids content
  • storage
1- Asefi N. Jafarian P. and Mozafari M. 2011. Evaluation of effect coating liquid and storage qualification on pomegranate conserve quality. p. 104-112.International pomegranate hamayeshe, Ferdose mashhad. (in Persian with English abstract)
2- Anonymous. 2014. Statistical jahade egriculture. P.1-77.
3- Artes F. Tuedela J.A. and Villaescusa R. 2000. Thermal postharvest treatments for improving pomegranate quality and shelf life. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 18:245–251.
4- Ahvenainen R. 2003. Novel food packaging techniques. In: Ahvenainen R. Editors. Active and intelligent packaging: an introduction. Cambridge, UK: Woodhead Publishing Ltd, P. 5- 21.
5- Al-Zoreky NS. 2009. Antimicrobial activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit peels. Int J Food Microbiol 134: 244-8.
6- Asen S. Stewart, R. N. Norris, K. H. 1972. Copigmentation of anthocyanins in plant tissues and its effect on color. Phytochemistry 11: 1139-1144.
7- Ali Khani M. sharifiyani M. Azizi M. Mosavi Zade S.J. and Rhimi M. 2009. Increase storage life and Preservation fruit strawberry quality by meal mosilaje cover and avishan essence. Iranian J. Agric. Sci. 16(2): 1-10. (in Persian with English abstract)
8- Cha DS. Choi JH. Chinnan MS. Park HJ. 2002. Antimicrobial films based on na-alginate and κ-carrageenan. Lebensm Wiss Technol 35(8): 715-19.
9- Castillo S. Perez-Alfonso C. O. Martinez-Romero D. Guillen F. Serrano M. and Valero D. 2014. The essential oils thymol and carvacrol applied in the packinglinesavoid lemon spoilage and maintain quality during storage. Food Control 35: 132-136.
10- Danae L. Lilian W. 2009. Anti-Listeria monocytogenes activity of heat-treated lyophilized pomegranate juice in media and in ground top round beef. J Food Protect 72 (12): 2508-16.
11- Devatkal SK. Narsaiah K. Borah A. 2010. Anti-oxidant effect of extracts of kinnow rind, pomegranate rind and seed powders in cooked goat meat patties. Meat Sci 85 (1): 155-9.
12- Elyatem S.M. and Kader A.A. 1984. Postharvest physiology and storage behavior of pomegranate fruits. Scientia Horticulturae, 24:287–298.
13- Echeverria E. Burns J.K. and Wicker L. 1989. Effect of cell wall hydrolysis on brix in citrus fruit.Proc. Florida State Horticultural Society 101:150–154.
14- Ghasemian A. Mehrabian S. Majd A. 2006. Peel extracts of two Iranian cultivars of pomegranate (Punica granatum) have antioxidant and antimutagenic activities. Pakistan J Biol Sci 9: 1402-5.
15- Hess-Pierce B. and Kader A.A. 2003. Responses of Wonderful pomegranates to controlled atmospheres. Acta Horticulturae, 600:751–757.
16- Kim S. Ruengwilysup C. Fung DYC. 2004. Antibacterial effect of water-soluble tea extracts on foodborne pathogens in laboratory medium and in a food model. J Food Protect 67: 2608-12.
17- Kader A.A. Chordas A. and S. M Elyatem. 1984. Responses of pomegranate to ethylene treatment and storage temperature. California Agriculture.
18- Kader A. A. 2003. Postharvest Technology of Horticultural Crops. Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California, UCD Press 535p.
19- Lansky EP. Newman RA. 2007. Punica granatum (pomegranate) and its potential for prevention and treatment of inflammation and cancer. J Ethnopharmacol 109(2): 177-206.
20- Mirdehghan S.H. Rahemi M. Serrano M. Guillen F. Martinez-Romero D. and Valero D. 2007. The application of polyamines by pressure or immersion as a tool to maintain functional properties in stored pomegranate arils. of. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 55:755–760.
21- Martos MV. Lopez JF. Álvarez JAP. 2010. Pomegranate and its many functional components as related to human health: a review. Comprehens Rev Food Sci Food Safety 9(6): 635-54.
22- Mahdavy niya Z. Abotaleby A. Hasan poor A. 2011. Effect of calcium chloride sodium hypochlorite and PE coating on postharvest quality of fruit varieties in stock R,coferance meli pomegranate. 186-191.
23- Mirdehghan S.H. and Rahemi M. 2002. Reduction of chilling injury in the pomegranate (punica granatum L.) fruits by intermittent warming. Iranian J. Agric. Sci. 1:75-80. (in Persian with English abstract)
24- Maghsoodi M. 2012. Effect opponent bacterial chitosan in growth mold on fruit strawberry. Jfst 34: 77-83. (in Persian with English abstract)
25- Ozdemir M. Kocaeli G. Floros DJ. 2004. Active Food Packaging Technologies. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 44:185-193.
26- Obenland D. Collin S. Sievert J. Fjeld K. Doctor J. and Arpaia M. L. 2008. Commercial packing and storage of navel oranges alters aroma volatiles and reduces flavor quality. Postharvest Biology and Technology. 159–167.
27- Pyla R. Kim T.J. Silva JL. Jung Yg. 2010. Enhanced antimicrobial activity of starch-based film impregnated with thermally processed tannic acid, a strong antioxidant, Int J Food Microbiol 137(2-3) : 154-60.
28- Project studies baghbani country. 1995. Ministry agriculture. Vol 5.
29- Rossetto M. Vanzani P. Zennaro L. Mattivi F. Vrhovsek U. Scarpa M. Rigo A. 2004. Stable free radicals and peroxyl radical trapping capacity in red wines, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52: 6151-6155.
30- Rnjbar H. zolfaghari nasab R. ghasem nezhad M. and sarkhosh A. 2007. Effect metil jasmonat at transmittal resistance to frostbite pomegranate fruit (Malas Saveh). Pajouhesh and Sazandegi 75: 43-49. (in Persian with English abstract)
31- Rahemi M. 2003. Physiology postharvest, Preface on physiology and displace fruits and vegetables. reports shiraz university.
32- shakeri M. mirhosseini M.R. and dehghani F. 2007. Assessment several fungicides to control pomegranate fruitrots. Pajouhesh and Sazandegi, 74:165-171. (in Persian with English abstract)
33- Ramezanian A. Rahimi doen S. and esmaeli H. 2014. Studies of effect of some poli sakarid meal covers on storage life conar. P. 1-766. First international hamayesh fanavarihaye new harvest and post harvest agriculture., Feb 18-19. 2014. Center scholarship agriculture. (in Persian)
34- Singh R.P. Chidambara M.K.N. Jayaprakasha G.K. 2002. Studies on the antioxidant activity of pomegranate (punica granatum) peel and seed extracts using in vitro models. J Agric Food Chem 50 (1): 81-6.
35- Talaie A. Askari sarcheshmeh M.A. Bahadoran F. and sherafatian D. 2004. The effects of hot water treatment and in polyethylene bag packaging on the storage life and quality of pomegranate (Cv: Malas- Saveh). Iranian J. Agric. Sci. 2: 369-377. (in Persian with English abstract)
36- www.bargozideha.com.