تأثیر کودهای آلی، تلقیح میکوریزایی ( Glomus mosseaeو G. intraradices) بر عملکرد کمی و کیفی برداشت مختلف گیاه دارویی کاسنی پاکوتاه (Cichorium pumilum Jacq.)

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 پژوهشکده علوم و صنایع غذایی

چکیده

به منظور بررسی تاثیر کودهای آلی و تلقیح میکوریزایی بر عملکرد کمی و کیفی برداشت های مختلف گیاه دارویی کاسنی پاکوتاه (Cichorium pumilum Jacq.) آزمایشی در سال زراعی 92-91 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد به اجرا درآمد. آزمایش به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی اجرا شد. در این مطالعه 12 تیمار؛ که شامل کود آلی در چهار سطح (کود گاوی، اسید هیومیک ، فولویک اسید و شاهد) و تلقیح میکوریزایی درسه سطح (تلقیح با Glomus mosseaeو تلقیح با G. intraradices و عدم تلقیح) در نظر گرفته شدند. داده های آزمایش به‌دلیل تولید دو برداشت به‌صورت کرت‌های خرد شده در زمان در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی مورد تجزیه آماری قرار گرفتند. 12 تیمار کودی به عنوان عامل اصلی، دو برداشت به عنوان عامل فرعی در نظر گرفته شدند و صفاتی از جمله وزن برگ در بوته، وزن ساقه در بوته، نسبت برگ به ساقه، شاخص سطح برگ، عملکرد تر زیست توده، عملکرد خشک زیست توده و میزان پلی فنول برگ اندازه‌گیری شد. بیشترین وکمترین عملکرد خشک زیست توده گیاه کاسنی پاکوتاه در برداشت دوم و اول (به ترتیب 4544 و 1739 کیلوگرم در هکتار) حاصل شد. تلقیح گونه های میکوریزا باعث افزایش عملکرد خشک زیست توده و شاخص سطح برگ، وزن برگ در بوته، در مقایسه با شاهد گردید. با این وجود بین تیمارهای G. mosseae وG. intraradices تفاوت معنی داری در صفات ذکر شده مشاهد نشد .کاربرد کودهای آلی نیز باعث بهبود صفات مذکور در گیاه کاسنی پا کوتاه شد. به طوری‌که بیشترین میزان ماده خشک، شاخص سطح برگ و وزن برگ در بوته از کاربرد کود آلی اسید هیومیک حاصل گردید. کاربرد این تیمارهای تغذیه‌ای اثر معنی داری بر میزان پلی فنول برگ نداشت. به‌طور کلی بر اساس نتایج حاصله کاربرد کودهای زیستی و آلی صفات مورد مطالعه در آزمایش را در گیاه کاسنی پا کوتاه درعمده صفات مورد مطالعه باعث بهبود بخشید و تیمار mosseae G. + اسید هیومیک بهترین تیمار بود. همچنین کاربرد این منابع تغذیه ای می تواند منجر به کاهش مصرف کودهای شیمیایی در اکوسیستم های کشاورزی شود که گامی مهم در راستای به حداقل رسانیدن آلودگی محیط و کشاورزی پایدار است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effects of Organic Fertilizers and Mycorrhizae Inoculation (Glomus mosseae and G. intraradices) on Quantitative and Qualitative Yield of Dwarf Chicory (Cichorium pumilum Jacq.) in Different Cuttings

نویسندگان [English]

  • R. Naghibi 1
  • P. Rezvani Moghaddam 1
  • A. Balandari 2
  • Reza Ghorbani 1
1 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
2 Research Institute for Food Science
چکیده [English]

Introduction: In recent years many farmers in Iran interested in to cultivate and produce different medicinal plants which are so important in traditional agriculture in Iran. In order to reduce the environmental impacts of using chemical inputs and also to increase the quality of plant secondary metabolite components, the emphasis is on sustainable agriculture base on using of organic and biological fertilizer. Dwarf chicory (Cichorium pumilum Jacq.) is an annual plant from Asteraceae family. Dwarf chicory is classified by jacq as subspecies of the cultivated species Cichorium endeva which consumed for healing a variety of diseases such as bacterial infection, poisoning and rheumatism. The use of organic fertilizer in the form of humic acid and fulvic acid play an important role in sustainable agriculture. Humic substances can be added to the soil for improvement the crop yield. A benefit of humic acid due to its ability to complex metal ions and form aqueous complexes with micronutrients and also may form an enzymatically active complex, which can be carry on reactions that are usually assigned to the metabolic activity of living microorganisms. In additional of using organic fertilizers, the biological fertilizer like mycorrhiza fungi is a good approach in agriculture. Mycorrhizal fungi have been used to enhance the plant growth and yield of medicinal crops and to help maintain good soil health and fertility that contributes to a greater extent to a sustainable yield and good quality of the products. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of organic fertilizers and mycorrhizae inoculation on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of dwarf chicory (Cichorium pumilum Jacq.) in different cuttings.
Materials and Methods: The experiment was carried out in a factorial layout based on randomized complete block design with three replications at Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (59°28 E and 36°15 N ) in 2012-2013 growing season. The experimental treatments were all combination of organic fertilizers in four levels (cow manure, humic acid, fulvic acid and control) and three levels of Mycorrhiza inoculation (Glomus mosseae, Glomus intraradices and no inoculation) and The collected data were analyzed as split- plot in time based on randomized complete block design (due to having two cuttings during growing season) compared. The 12 fertilizer treatments and two cuts were considered as main and sub plots, respectively. The plots were 2.5*5 m (12.5 m2). The soil of the experimental field was silty loam with pH 8.09, contains total N (0.08 %), available P (10.25 ppm), and available K (286 ppm) with an EC of 1.26 dsm−1. The parameters measured were such as: leaf weight per plant, stem weight per plant, leaf/stem ratio, the leaf area index, fresh yield, dry matter yield and the poly phenol content. The poly phenol content was determined based on Wojdylo et al. (2007) method. The results were analyzed using SAS statistical program and MSTAT-C. The mean comparisons were performed using least significant difference (LSD) test.
Results and Discussion: The results showed that the highest (4544 kg.ha-1) and the lowest dry matter (1739 kg.ha-1) yield were obtained in second and first cut, respectively. The results indicated that inoculation with mycorrhizal species increased the leaf area index, dry matter yield and leaf weight per plant compared with control treatment. However, there was no significant difference between G. mosseae and G. intraradices in terms of former mentioned criteria. The results showed that using organic fertilizers improved leaf area index, dry matter yield and leaf weight per plant. The highest dry matter yield (3470 kg/ha), leaf area index (1.01), stem weight per plant (11.50 g) and leaf weight per plant (0.72 g) were obtained in humic acid treatment. Studied treatments and also different cutting had no significant effect on poly phenols contents of leaves. In generally, our results showed that application of biological and organic fertilizers improved the most of studied traits of dwarf chicory and G.mosseae + humic acid treatment was the best.
Conclusion: In this paper we have shown that yield contributing characters were significantly influenced by different treatment combinations of humic acid and mycorrhizal fungi and became maximum when humic acid and Glomus mossae were applied. In order to minimize contamination of the environment and sustainable agriculture, using biological and organic fertilizers can lead to reduction of chemical fertilizers application in agro ecosystems.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cutting period
  • Fresh yield
  • Humic acid
  • Medicine plant
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