انتخاب پایه های رویشی بادام متحمل به تنش آبی براساس نشانگرهای مرفولوژیکی

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

2 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 موسسه اصلاح و تهیه بذر و نهال کرج

چکیده

انتخاب پایه های بادام متحمل به تنش آبی به منظور تولید بهینه محصول در مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک اهمیت زیادی دارد. در راستای انتخاب پایه های جدید متحمل به کم آبی، اثر تنش آبی و ریز موجودات مفید (Effective microorganism (Em)) بر خصوصیات مرفولوژیکی پایه های رویشی بادام در طی سال های 91 -1389 در گروه علوم باغبانی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. آزمایش به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه رژیم متفاوت آبیاری (کامل،33 و 66 درصد تخلیه آب قابل نگهداری) و دو سطح غلظت ریز موجودات مفید (Em) (محلول صفر ( شاهد) و یک درصد) و 4 فاکتور پایه (قلمه‌های ریشه‌دار شده پایه های رویشی GF677، دو هیبرید طبیعی انتخابی هلو× بادام (H1 و H2) و قلمه های ریشه‌دار شده ژنوتیپ جوین)، در 4 تکرار انجام شد. تجزیه واریانس نشان داد، بین سطوح پایه ها و آبیاری در تمام تیمارها مورد بررسی از نظر آماری در سطح احتمال یک درصد تفاوت معنی داری وجود دارد. نتایج حاکی از آن بود که سطوح ریز موجودات مفید در صفات سطح برگ، تعداد برگ، رشد سالیانه، وزن تر و خشک و حجم ریشه دارای تفاوت معنی داری در سطح احتمال یک درصد بوده و مقایسه میانگین ها نشان داد که مصرف Em باعث افزایش این صفات نسبت به شاهد شده است. با توجه به نتایج این پژوهش، از بین صفات مورد آزمایش، طول، وزن خشک و حجم ریشه نشانگرهای مناسبی، برای ارزیابی میزان تحمل به تنش آبی بادام و هیبرید طبیعیH1، پایه مقاوم به شرایط کم آبی تشخیص داده شد. تاثیر ریز موجودات مفید بر عوامل رشدی و زنده مانی نهال ها تابع نوع پایه بوده و تاثیر آن بر میزان مقاومت به تنش آبی نیز با خصوصیات ژنتیکی پایه متفاوت بود. با توجه به نتایج این تحقیق، هیبرید طبیعیH1، به عنوان یک پایه مقاوم به شرایط خشکی معرفی می شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Selection of Almond Vegetative Rootstocks for Water Stress Tolerance Based on the Morphological Markers

نویسندگان [English]

  • A.A. Shokouhian 1
  • Gh. Davarynejad 2
  • A. Tehranifar 2
  • A. Imani 3
  • A. Rasoulzadeh 1
1 University of Mohaghegh Ardabili
2 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
3 Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII), Karaj
چکیده [English]

Introduction: One of the microbiological preparations used for this study was Effective Microorganisms (EM), being a commercial mixture of photosynthesizing bacteria, Actinomycetes, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and fermenting fungi. The microbiological composition of the EM concentrateincludesStreptomyces albus, Propioni bacterium freudenreichil, Streptococcus lactis, Aspergillus oryzae, Mucor hiemalis, Saccharomycescerevisiae and Candida utilis. Moreover, EM also contains an unspecified amount of Lactobacillus sp. Rhodo pseudomonas sp. and Streptomyces griseus. Effective Microorganisms have a positive effect on the decomposition of organic matter, limiting putrefaction, increasing nitrogen content in the root medium of plants, phosphorus, improving soil fertility and as a result contributing to the growth and development of the root systems of plants.
Selection of almond vegetative rootstocks for water stress tolerance is important for almond crop production in arid and semi-arid regions. The study of the eco-morphological characteristics that determine the success of a rootstock in a particular environment is a powerful tool for both agricultural management and breeding purposes. The aim of this work was to select the new rootstocks for water shortage tolerance, impact of water stress as well as Effective Microorganism (EM) on morphological characteristics of almond rootstocks.
Materials and Methods: In order to select the new rootstocks for water shortage tolerance, impact of water stress as well as EMonmorphologicalcharacteristics of almondrootstocks were studiedin thedepartment ofHorticulture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, in 2011-2012. The experiment was carried out with four replications in a completely random blockdesign to study the effects of two concentrations of EM (0 and 1%), three irrigation levels (normal irrigation 100%-control-and irrigation after depletion of 33 and 66% of available water), and four almond rootstocks including GF677 and selected natural hybrid of peach × almond (H1and H2), and almond vegetative rootstock (local control).In this study,EMtreatments for 60 days before stress treatments were applied so that in each irrigation, EM solution to a concentration of one percent was given to half of the experiment pots. Other pots were irrigated equally with normal water. Stress levels were applied from July as follow: full irrigation, watering after unloading 33% and 66% soil moisture availability. In order to evaluate the performance, seedling survival, plant growth, number of leaves, leaf area, root fresh and dry weight and leaves and root length were measured.
Results and Discussion: Analysis of variance showed that between rootstock levels across all treatments were significantly differences at 0.01 level of probability. Comparison of means showed that the highest fresh and dry weight and leaf are awere observed forGF677and H1.Rootstockannualgrowth rate was also different. Most of the growth was related to the H1 Rootstocks. Thes urvival ratewas significantly different from the Rootstocks ofGF677,andH1showedthe highestpercentage of survival. The degree of adaptation to drought in varieties of almonds is different. The results showed that changes ingrowthparametersinGF677and H1were observed less often than other rootstocks. Because of strong roots,GF677and H1continue to attract more minerals under stress conditions.
Analysis of variance showed that the between irrigation levels for all treatments were significantly different at 0.01 level of probability. Comparison of means showed that among the study traits, the highest amount was obtained from complete irrigation, while irrigationat66 percenthad the least amount. Water stress may directly affect photosyn thesis, through leaf photochemicalprocessorindirectly,byclosing stomata, reducingleaf area and growth.
The results showed that the levels of(EM) on the leaf surface, leaf number, annual growth, root dry weight and volume were significantly different (p

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Effective Microorganisms
  • Dehydration
  • Natural hybrid
  • Survival of rootstock
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