ارزیابی عملکرد و برخی صفات مورفولوژیک تره فرنگی (Allium porrum L.) در کشت مخلوط با شبدر سفید (Trifolium repens L.)

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه کاسل آلمان

2 دانشگاه رازی کرمانشاه

3 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

کشت مخلوط می‌تواند راه‌حلی جایگزین برای تولید محصول در سیستم‌های رایج کشاورزی که در آن‌ها تک‌کشتی رواج دارد، باشد. لذا آزمایشی به‌منظور ارزیابی اثر مدیریت کشت همزمان گیاه4 در سال زراعی 2012 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه کاسل آلمان انجام شد. در این آزمایش از طرح آزمایشی بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی استفاده شد و تیمارهای آزمایش (6 تیمار) شامل: 1- کشت همزمان شبدر و تره فرنگی (به دو صورت قطع و عدم قطع شبدر)، 2- کشت شبدر 48 روز پس از انتقال نشاء تره فرنگی (به دو صورت قطع و عدم قطع شبدر)، و 3- تیمار کشت تره فرنگی بدون شبدر (به دو صورت وجین و عدم جین علف‌های هرز) بودند. کل ماده خشک تولیدی در هکتار در اولین برداشت، در تیمارهایی که در آن‌ها کشت شبدر با تاخیر انجام شده بود و تیمارهای فاقد شبدر که در آن‌ها وجین علف‌هرز به صورت دستی انجام شده بود به ترتیب معادل 1259، 1157و 1360 کیلوگرم در هکتار بود ولی در دومین برداشت تفاوت بین تیمارها از این لحاظ معنی‌د‌ار نبودند. در ارتباط با درصد ماده خشک نیز در تیمار حاوی قطع شبدر و وجین علف های هرز در هر دو زمان برداشت بیشترین مقدار درصد ماده خشک ثبت شد. نتایج حاصل از مقایسات گروهی تیمارها نشان داد که بهترین ترکیب تیماری برای بدست آوردن بیشترین ماده خشک کشت تاخیری شبدر در تره فرنگی به همراه وجین علف‌های هرز بود. نتایج مربوط به قطر و ارتفاع ساقه تره‌فرنگی نیز نشان داد که بیشترین قطر ساقه تره‌فرنگی در کشت خالص همراه با وجین علف هرز حاصل شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Yield and Yield Components of Leek (Allium porrum L.) in Intercropping with White Clover (Trifolium repens L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • E. Ebrahimi 1
  • A. Bagheri 2
  • F. Nurbakhsh 3
1 University of Kassel, Germany
2 Razi University
3 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Leek, Allium porrum L. is one of the most important vegetables in Europe. Open canopy up to harvest in leek field raises problem in weed management and increase nutrient leaching during vegetation period. Intercropping in leek fields causes better weed control along with the other benefits of this type of method. Intercropping leek with White clover Trifolium repens L. as a cover crop is considered, because it is known to have high ability to fix nitrogen in the soil biologically and prevent nutrient leaching during the growing season. In this study, intercropping ofleek A. porrum L. and white clover T. repens L. is evaluated.
Materials and Methods This experiment was conducted in 2011 and located at the research farm Hessian State Estate Frankenhausen, Germany (51° 27′ 0″ N, 9° 25′ 0″ E),249 meter above sea level. The goal of this experiment was based on comparison between leek in intercrop system with white clover (The factors included different date of sowing composed early undersowing, sowed right after transplanting leeks and late undersowing, one month later) and leek in monoculture system. In addition, different cover crop management by cutting and without cutting the clovers has been considered. In monoculture system, applying hand weeding and no-weeding was evaluated. Therefore, this experiment consisted of 6 treatments (1 and 2: early undersowing of clovers with and without cut, 3 and 4: late undersowing of clovers with and without cut, 5 and 6: monoculture with and without hand weeding) with three replications and performed as a complete randomized block design. Analysis of variance, Duncan tests (P≤0.05) and orthogonal analysis wasapplied for comparison between the treatments.
Results and Discussion: The comparison between treatments with cover crop indicated a significant difference (P ≤ 0.01) among treatments with early and late sowing time for clovers. Treatments with late sowed clovers (with and without cut) produced significantly higher dry matter in comparison with treatments with early sowed clovers (with or without cut). It seems late existence of clover at the early stages of development created more dry matterin leeks. Comparison indicated that treatments with clover but without cut, significantly created more dry matterin comparison with treatments, which clover cut. Existence of clover as mulch prevents weed growth and also biological Nitrogen fixation can be a reason for such observation. The results indicated that stem diameter for leeks in monoculture system and without hand weeding was significantly less than other treatments. Moreover, leek diameter in monoculture treatments with hand weeding was one of the greatest values. The largest amount of leek diameter was created in treatments with late sowing of clover, 48 days after transplanting leeks, whether clover has or not been cut. It seems despite all benefits of clover in Nitrogen fixation and prevention of weeds, that clover itself can be a considerable competitor with leeks as well.
Conclusions: The results of this experiment indicated that intercropping leek and clover can have a positive effect on dry matterproduction and quality of leek with proper timing of undersowing. We should consider that weeding was not possible for the whole growing season. Therefore, weeding at the beginning of the growing season and applying late cover crop could create more benefits of intercropping with a few competing effects on leek. In fact, weeding at the beginning of growing season establishes a good potential for nutrient absorption during the critical primary growing period of leek.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cover crop
  • Delayed cultivation
  • Plant management
  • Vegetables
Backer E., Aertsens J., Vergucht S., and Steurbaut W. 2009. Assessing the ecological soundness of organic and conventional agriculture by means of life cycle assessment (LCA): A case study of leek production. British Food Journal, 111 (10): 1028–1061.
2- Baumann D.T., Bastiaans L., and Kropff M.J. 2001. Effects of intercropping on growth and reproductive capacity of late-emerging Senecio vulgaris L., with special reference to competition for light. Annals of Botany, 87 (2): 209–217.
3- Baumann D.T., Bastiaans L., and Kropff M.J. 2001a. Competition and crop performance in a Leek–Celery intercropping system. Crop Science, 41 (3): 764–774.
4- Baumann D.T., Bastiaans L., and Kropff M.J. 2001b. Competition and crop performance in a Leek–Celery intercropping system. Crop Science, 41: 764–774.
5- Baumann D.T., Bastiaans L., Goudriaan J., Laar H.H., and Kropff M.J. 2002. Analyzing crop yield and plant quality in an intercropping system using an eco-physiological model for interplant competition. Agricultural Systems, 73 (2): 173–203.
6- Bertschinger L., and Anderson J.D. 2004. Sustainability of horticultural systems in the 21st century. International Society for Horticultural Science, Belgium, ISBN: 978-90-66057-07-4.
7- Biabani A., Hashemi M., and Herbert S.J. 2008. Agronomic performance of two intercropped soybean cultivars. International Journal of Plant Production, 2: 215–222.
8- Booij R., Kreuzer A.D.H., Smit A.L., and von der Werf A. 1996. Effect of nitrogen availability on dry matter production, nitrogen uptake and light interception of Brussels sprouts and leeks. Nederland Journal of Agricultural sciences, 44 (1): 3–19.
9- Den Belder E., Elderson J., and Vereijken P.F.G. 2000. Effects of undersown clover on host-plant selection by Thrips tabaci adults in leek. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 94 (2):173–182.
10- Den Hollander N.G., Bastiaans L., and Kropff M.J. 2007a. Clover as a cover crop for weed suppression in an intercropping design. European Journal of Agronomy, 26 (2): 104–112.
11- Den Hollander N.G., Bastiaans L., and Kropff M.J. 2007b. Clover as a cover crop for weed suppression in an intercropping design. European Journal of Agronomy, 26 (2): 92–103.
12- Francis C.A. 1986. Multiple cropping systems. Collier Macmillan, New York.
13- Francis C.A. 2009. Organic farming. The ecological system. WI: American Society of Agronomy; Crop Science Society of America; Soil Science Society of America, Madison.
14- Gabriel J.L., Muñoz-Carpena R., and Quemada M. 2012. The role of cover crops in irrigated systems: Water balance, nitrate leaching and soil mineral nitrogen accumulation. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 155: 50–61.
15- Gardner F.P., Pearce R.B., and Mitchell R.L. 1985. Physiology of crop plants. 1st ed. Iowa State University Press, Ames.
16- Hole D.G., Perkins A.J., Wilson J.D., Alexander I.H., Grice P.V. and Evans A.D. 2005. Does organic farming benefit biodiversity? Biological Conservation, 122 (1): 113–130.
17- Hopkins A. 2004. Organic farming: science and practice for profitable livestock and cropping. British Grassland Society, England.
18- Hoshmand A.R. 2006. Design of experiments for agriculture and the natural sciences. 2nd ed. Chapman & Hall/CRC, London.
19- Isik D., Kaya E., Ngouajio M., and Mennan H. 2009. Weed suppression in organic pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) with winter cover crops. Crop Protection, 28 (4): 356–363.
20- Kroeck S., and Langer J. 2011. Crop rotation and cover cropping. Chelsea Green Pub, farm. Rev. White River Junction, VT.
21- Melander B., and Rasmussen G. 2001. Effects of cultural methods and physical weed control on intrarow weed numbers, manual weeding and marketable yield in direct-sown leek and bulb onion. Weed Research, 41 (6): 491–508.
22- Mennan,H., Ngouajio M., Isık D., and Kaya E. 2009. Effects of alternative winter cover cropping systems on weed suppression in organically grown tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Phytoparasitica, 37 (4): 385–396.
23- Müller-Schärer H. 1996. Interplanting ryegrass in winter leek: effect on weed control, crop yield and allocation of N-fertiliser. Crop Protection, 15 (7): 641–648.
24- Murray P.J., and Clements R.O. 1998. Transfer of nitrogen between clover and wheat: Effect of root herbivory. European Journal of Soil Biology, 34 (1): 25–30.
25- Murray P.J., Dawson L.A., and Grayston S.J. 2002. Influence of root herbivory on growth response and carbon assimilation by white clover plants. Applied Soil Ecology, 20 (2): 97–105.
26- Sadeghi S., Rhnavard A., and Ashrafi Z.Y. 2010. Responds of Leek (Allium porrum L.) to various weed management. Journal of Agricultural Technology, 6 (3): 607–614.
27- Thorsted M.D., Olesen J.E., and Weiner J. 2006. Mechanical control of clover improves nitrogen supply and growth of wheat in winter wheat/white clover intercropping. European Journal of Agronomy, 24 (2): 149–155.
28- Tursun N., Bukun B., Can Karacan S., Ngouajio M., and Mennan H. 2007. Critical period for weed control in Leek (Allium porrum L.). Hortscience, 42 (1): 106–109.
29- Uchino H., Iwama K., Jitsuyama Y., Yudate T., and Nakamura S. 2009. Yield losses of soybean and maize by competition with interseeded cover crops and weeds in organic-based cropping systems. Field Crops Research, 113 (3): 342–351.
30- Uchino H., Iwama K., Jitsuyama Y., Ichiyama K., Sugiura E., and Yudate T. 2012. Effect of interseeding cover crops and fertilization on weed suppression under an organic and rotational cropping system. Field Crops Research, 127: 9–16.
31- Wyland L.J., Jackson L.E., Chaney W.E., Klonsky K., Koike S.T., and Kimple B. 1996. Winter cover crops in a vegetable cropping system: Impacts on nitrate leaching, soil water, crop yield, pests and management costs. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 59 (1-2): 1–17.