عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction: Iron chlorosis is considered to be one of the most important nutritional disorders in grapevines, particularly in calcareous soils that under these conditions fruit yield and quality is depressed in the current year and fruit buds poorly develop for following year. Symptoms of iron chlorosis in orchards and vineyards are usually more frequent in spring when shoot growth is rapid and bicarbonate concentration in the soil solution buffers soil pH in the rhizosphere and root apoplast. Several native grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) genotypes, highly appreciated for their organoleptic characteristics and commercial potential, are widely cultivated in Iran. Cultivated plants differ as to their susceptibility to Fe deficiency in calcareous soils, some being poorly affected while others showing severe leaf chlorotic symptoms. Selection and the use of Fe-efficient genotypes is one of the important approaches to prevent this nutritional problem. In this research the response of three local grapevine cultivars was evaluated to iron chelate consumption in a calcareous soil (26% T.N.V).
Materials and Methods: Well rooted woody cuttings of three autochthonous varieties (Rasha, Qezel uzum, Keshmeshi Qermez) were cultivated in pots filled with a calcareous soil with iron chelate consumption at three rates (0, 7.5 and 15 mg Fe/ Kg soil). The study was conducted with two factors (cultivar and iron chelate) and 3 replicates in a factorial arrangement based on randomized complete block design. Plant parameters including vegetative growth, chlorophyll index and leaf area were monitored during the growth period. At the end of the treatment, fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots were determined. The concentrations of macro and micro elements in the leaves were assayed using an atomic absorption and spectrophotometer. One-way-ANOVA was applied comparing the behavior of the cultivars growing.
Results and Discussion: Analysis of variance showed that chlorophyll index and leaf area differs significantly among tested cultivars. The highest and the lowest chlorophyll index were observed in Rasha and Keshmeshi Qermez cultivars, respectively. Fe chelate consumption up to 7.5 mg/kg significantly increased chlorophyll, leaf area, shoots growth and fresh weight of shoot and root compared to the control. The highest leaf area was related to Rasha cultivar in 7.5 mg/kg treatment. In all tested cultivars by increasing Fe concentration to 15 mg/kg, leaf area was decreased. According to the laboratory results, there was a significant difference in the concentrations of some macro and micro nutrient of leaves among tested cultivars. The highest amount of K, Fe, Mn and Zn was recorded in leaves of Rasha cultivar. Qezel uzum has also the highest P, N, Ca, Mg and Cu in its leaves. Application of 7.5 Fe mg /Kg soil increased calcium, magnesium and copper concentrations in leaves of Rasha cultivar and nitrogen concentration in Qezel uzum cultivar. In Keshmeshi Qermez cultivar, the sensitive cultivar to iron chlorosis, iron chelate consumption up to 7.5 Fe mg /Kg soil increased nitrogen, zinc and copper concentrations. Increase in iron consumption up to 15 mg/Kg soil caused significant increase in copper concentration. Among the study cultivars, Rasha significantly absorbed the highest iron, zinc, manganese and potassium from the soil and did not show iron chlorosis, so it can be as a suitable rootstock with respect to iron chlorosis.
Conclusion: In this study we have studied the influence Fe-chelate on some features of three Iranian grapevine cultivars (Vitis vinifera L) grown in calcareous soils. Our findings confirm the variable response of native grapevines to bicarbonate-induced iron deficiency. The most susceptible cultivar, Keshmeshi Qermez, have been very impaired by the calcareous soil; it produced less shoot growth and dry matter since these factors of the tolerant cultivars was decreased very little. The different behavior of potted cultivars with respect to iron chlorosis is related to modifications of some physiological parameters at the root level. A parameter which emphasizes the differential response of the genotypes to stress conditions was the capability of the genotypes to take up elements from the soil. Rasha cultivar showed a high degree of tolerance by taking up more iron when growing on calcareous soil, while keshmeshi cultivar took less iron. It will be recommended use of Rasha cultivar in calcareous soil as on rooted vine or rootstock. These findings suggest that biochemical parameters may constitute reliable criteria for the selection of tolerant grapevine genotypes to iron chlorosis.