اثر اصلاح کننده های خاک و کودهای بیولوژیک بر خصوصیات مورفولوژیک و عملکرد گاوزبان ایرانی (Echium amoenum)

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مجتمع آموزش عالی گناباد

2 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی اثر اصلاح‌کننده‌های خاک و کودهای بیولوژیک مختلف بر خصوصیات مورفولوژیکی و عملکرد گیاه دارویی گاوزبان ایرانی (Echium amoenum)، آزمایشی در سال‌های زراعی 92-1390 در دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد در به‌صورت طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل هفت نوع اصلاح‌کننده‌ی خاک و کود بیولوژیک مختلف از جمله: 1- اسید هیومیک، 2- اسید فولویک، 3- نیتروکسین (حاوی باکتری‌های Azotobacter spp. و Azospirillum spp.)، 4- بیوفسفر (حاوی باکتری‌های Bacillus sp. و Pseudomonas sp.)، 5- بیوسولفور (Thiobacillus spp.)، 6- میکوریزا (Glomus mosseae)، و 7- میکوریزا (Glomus intraradices) و عدم استفاده از کود به‌عنوان تیمار شاهد بودند. نتایج آزمایش نشان داد که هر دو گونه‌ میکوریزای مورد مطالعه منجر به افزایش عملکرد گل در مقایسه با شاهد شدند، به‌طوری‌که عملکرد گل در تیمارهای Glomus mosseae و Glomus intraradices به‌ترتیب 24 و 11 درصد بیشتر از شاهد بود. تمامی نهاده‌های اکولوژیک مورد مطالعه سبب افزایش تعداد چرخه‌ی گل در بوته در مقایسه با شاهد شدند، ولی اثر کود بیولوژیک بیوفسفر از این نظر به‌طور بارزتری نمایان شد، به-طوری‌که تعداد چرخه‌ی گل در بوته از 342 چرخه در بوته‌های تحت‌تیمار شاهد به 1322 چرخه در گیاهان تحت‌تیمار بیوفسفر افزایش یافت. بیشترین مقدار عملکرد دانه، عملکرد ماده‌ی خشک، وزن دانه در بوته و تعداد دانه در بوته در تیمار اسید هیومیک مشاهده شد، به‌طوری‌که در نتیجه‌ی کاربرد اسید هیومیک عملکرد دانه، عملکرد ماده‌ی خشک، وزن دانه در بوته و تعداد دانه در بوته به‌ترتیب 82، 66، 63 و 66 درصد نسبت به شاهد افزایش یافتند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effects of Soil Amendments and Bio-fertilizers Inoculation on Morphological Characteristics and Yield of Echium amoenum

نویسندگان [English]

  • M.B. Amiri 1
  • Parviz Rezvani Moghaddam 2
  • Mohsen Jahan 2
1 Gonabad University
2 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
چکیده [English]

Introduction: In recent years, the effect of ecological inputs on soil properties and plant growth characteristics has received renewed attention. Although the utilization of mineral fertilizers could be viewed as the best solution in plant productivity, this approach is often inefficient in the long-term in many ecosystems due to the limited ability of low-activity clay soils to retain nutrients. Intensive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides in agricultural systems is also known to have irreversible effects on soil and water resources. Maintenance of soil fertility as a permanent bed for continuous production of agricultural products is one of the most important issues affecting the sustainability of food production. In order to achieve healthy food production, application of ecological inputs such as soil amendments and bio-fertilizers is inevitable. Humic substances are a group of heterogeneous molecules that are bonded together by weak forces; therefore, they have a high chemical stability. This material included 65 to 80 percent of total soil organic matter. Application of bio-fertilizers is an appropriate alternative of chemical fertilizers to enhance soil fertility. In fact, bio-fertilizers include different types of free living organisms that convert unavailable nutrients to available forms and enhance root development and better seed germination. Mycorrhiza arbuscular fungi are coexist microorganisms that improve soil fertility, nutrients cycling and agroecosystem health. Mycorrhizal fungi are the most abundant organisms in agricultural soils. Many researchers have pointed to the positive roles of mycorrhizal fungi on plants growth characteristics. Echium amoenum is a perennial plant belongs to Boraginaceae family. This plant is native of North of Iran. Petal extract of E. amoenum have sedative, diaphoretic, anti-inflammatory and anti-depressant effects. These plants are wild perennial herbs and known in Iran as oxtongue. It is one of the most important medicinal plants in Iranian traditional medicine. Petals of Iranian oxtongue have been advocated for a variety of effects such as demulcent, anti-inflammatory and analgesic, especially for common cold, anxiolytic, sedative and other psychiatric symptoms including obsession in folk medicine of Iran. Despite many research on the effects of organic acids and bio-fertilizers on different crops, there is scarce information on the effects of these factors for many medicinal plants. Therefore, in this study effect of organic acids and bio-fertilizers on morphological characteristics and yield of Echium amoenum in a low input cropping system was studied.
Materials and methods: In order to evaluate the effects of soil amendments and different bio-fertilizers on morphological characteristics and seed yield of Echium amoenum, an experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replications during 2011-2013 growing seasons, at the Research Farm of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. Treatments were eight different types of soil amendments and bio-fertilizers concluding: 1) Humic acid, 2) Fulvic acid, 3) Nitroxin® (Azotobacter spp. and Azospirillum spp.), 4) Biophosphorous® (Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas sp.), 5) Biosulfur® (Thiobacillus spp.), 6) Mycorrhiza (Glomus mosseae), 7) Mycorrhiza (Glomus intraradices), and 8) no fertilizer as control.
Result and Discussion: The results showed that mycorrhiza species increased flower yield compared with control, as the flower yield in treatments of G. mosseae and G. intraradices were 24 and 11 percent more than control, respectively. Soil amendments and different bio-fertilizers increased the number of flower cycle per plant compared with control. Although the effect of biophosphorous® was more pronounced, as the number of flower cycle per plant increased from 342 to 1322 cycles in control and biophosphorous® , respectively. Humic acid treatment increased seed yield, biological yield, seed weight and seed number per plant by 82, 66, 63 and 66 percent compared with control, respectively. It seems that different species of mycorrhiza improved morphological characteristics and yield of Echium amoenum, because of better conditions to absorption and transportation of nutrient to the plant. It has been reported that organic acids provide favorable conditions for plant growth and development through improvement of physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil. Therefore, it could be concluded that improvement of most studied traits in the present study was as a result of use of organic acids.
Conclusions: Generally, our results showed that organic acids and biological fertilizers had positive effects on most of studied criteria. The highest flower and seed yields were obtained from G. mosseae and Humic acid treatments, respectively.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biophosphorous
  • Ecological input
  • Humic acid
  • Medicinal plant
  • Mychorrhiza
1- Agha Alikhani M., Iranpour A. and Naghdi Badi H. 2013. Changes in agronomical and phytochemical yield of purple coneflower (Echinaceae purpurea (L.) Moench) under urea and three biofertilizers application. Journal of Medicinal Plants, 12: 121-136. (in Persian with English abstract)
2- Anandham R., Sridar R., Nalayini P., Poonguzhali S., Madhaiyan M. and Tongmin S. 2007. Potential for plant growth promotion in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cv. ALR-2 by co-inoculation of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and Rhizobium. Microbiological Research, 162: 139-153.
3- Badi H.N., Zeinali Z., Omidi H. and Rezazadeh S. 2012. Morphological, agronomical and phytochemical changes in borage (Borago officinalis L.) under biological and chemical fertilizers application. Journal of Medicinal Plants, 11: 145-156. (in Persian with English abstract)
4- Baghdadi H., Daneshian J., Yousefi M., Alimohammadi M. and Kheybari M. 2012. Influence of cattle manure and mycorrhiza fungi on vegetative growth of pumpkin under water deficit conditions. International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences, 4: 1362-1365.
5- Benabdellah K., Abbas Y., Abourouh M., Aroca R. and Azcon R. 2011. Influence of two bacterial isolates from degraded and non-degraded soils and arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi isolated from semi-arid zone on the growth of Trifolium repens under drought conditions: Mechanisms related to bacterial effectiveness. European Journal of Soil Biology, 47: 303-309.
6- Bera A.K., Pramanik K. and Panda D. 2013. Response of biofertilizers and homo-brassinolide on growth, relative water content and yield of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik). Journal of Crop and Weed, 9: 84-90.
7- Chen J. 2006. The combined use of chemical and organic fertilizers and/or biofertilizer for crop growth and soil fertility. International Workshop on Sustained Management of the soil- Rhizosphere System for Efficient Crop Production and Fertilizer Use. 16- 20 October, Thailand, pp 11.
8- El-Baz S.M., Abbas E.E. and Mostafa R.A.I.A. 2012. Effect of sowing dates and humic acid on productivity and infection with rot diseases of some soybean cultivars cultivated in new reclaimed soil. International Journal of Agricultural Research, 7: 345-357.
9- Founoune H., Dponnois R., Meyer J.M., Thioulose J., Mass D., Chotte J.L. and Neyra M. 2002. Interactions between ectomycorrhizal symbiosis and fluorescent pseudomonads on Acacia holosericea: isolation of mycorrhiza helper bacteria (MHB) from a Soudano-Sahelian soil. FEMS. Microbial Ecology, 41: 37-46.
10- Ghassemi N., Sajjadi S.E., Ghannadi A., Shams Ardakani M. and Mehrabani M. 2003. Volatile constituents of Medicinal plant of Iran, Echium amoenum Fisch. and C.A. Mey. Daru, 11: 32-33.
11- Ghilavizadeh A., Darzi M.T. and Hadi M.H.S. 2013. Effects of biofertilizer and plant density on essential oil content and yield traits of Ajowan (Carum copticum). Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 14: 11 pp.
12- Gholami H., Samavat S. and Ardebili Z.O. 2013. The alleviating effects of humic substances on photosynthesis and yield of Plantago ovate in salinity conditions. International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research, 4: 1683-1686.
13- Hashemzadeh F., Mirshekari B., Khoe, F.R., Yarnia M. and Tarinejad A. 2013. Effect of bio and chemical fertilizers on seed yield and its components of dill (Anethum graveolens). Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 7: 111-117.
14- Hawkes C.V., Hartley I.P., Ineson P. and Fitter A.H. 2008. Soil temperature affects carbon allocation within arbuscular mycorrhizal networks and carbon transport from plant to fungus. Global Change Biology, 14: 1181–1190.
15- Heiari M. and Karami V. 2014. Effects of different mycorrhiza species on grain yield, nutrient uptake and oil content of sunflower under water stress. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences, 13: 9-13.
16- Kertesz M.A. and Mirleau K. 2004. The role of soil microbes in plant sulfur nutrition. Journal of Experimental Botany, 55: 1-7.
17- Kizilkaya R. 2008. Yield response and nitrogen concentration of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) inoculated with Azotobacter chroococcum strains. Ecological Engineering, 33: 150-156.
18- Latef A.A.H.A. and Chaoxin, H. 2011. Arbuscular mycorrhizal influence on growth, photosynthetic pigments, osmotic adjustment and oxidative stress in tomato plants subjected to low temperature stress. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 33: 1217-1225.
19- Lovelock C.E., Wright S.F., Clark D.A., and Ruess R.W. 2004. Soil stocks of glomalin produced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi across a tropical rain forest landscape. Journal of Ecology, 92: 278–287.
20- Massoud O.N., Afifi M.M.I., El-Akshar Y.S., El-Sayed G.A.M. 2013. Impact of biofertilizers and humic acid on the growth and yield of wheat grown in reclaimed sandy soil. Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, 9: 104-113.
21- Mehrabani M., Shams Ardakani M., Ghannadi A., Ghassemi Dehkordi N. and Sajjadi Jazi S.E. 2005. Production of rosmarinic acid in Echium amoenum Fisch. And C.A. Mey. Cell cultures. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2, 111-115.
22- Mohammadipour E., Golchin A., Mohammadi J., Negahdar N. and Zarchini M. 2012. Effect of humic acid on yield and quality of marigold (Calendula officinalis L.). Annals of Biological Research, 3: 5095-5098.
23- Mondal M.M.A., Malek M.A., Sattar M.A., Puteh A.B., Rafii M.Y. and Ismail M.R. 2013. Response of biofertilizer and urea on growth and yield in mungbean. Legume Research, 36: 448-452.
24- Natesan R., Kandasamy S., Thiyageshwari S. and Boopathy P.M. 2007. Influence of lignite humic acid on the micronutrient availability and yield of blackgram in an alfisol. Science World Journal, 7: 1198-1206.
25- Olsson P.A., Thingstrup I., Jakobsen I. and Baath E. 1999. Estimation of the biomass of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a linseed field. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 31: 1879–1887.
26- Paradis R., Dalpe Y. and Charest C. 1995. The combined effect of arbuscular mycorrhizas and short-term cold exposure on wheat. New Phytologist, 129: 637-642.
27- Rajendran K. and Devaraj P. 2004. Biomass and nutrient distribution and their return of Casuarina equisetifolia inoculated with biofertilizers in farm land. Biomass and Bioenergy, 26: 235-249.
28- Rentato Y., Ferreira M.E., Cruz M.C. and Barbosa J.C. 2003. Organic matter fraction and soil fertility the influence of liming vermicompost and cattle manure. Bioresource Technology, 60: 59-63.
29- Sarir M.S., Sharif M., Ahmed Zeb. and Akhlaq M. 2005. Influence of different levels of humic acid application by various methods on the yield and yield components of maize. Sarhad. Jouranl of Agriculture, 21: 75-81.
30- Sayyah M., Boostani H., Pakseresht S. and Malaieri A. 2009. Efficacy of aqueous extract of Echium amoenum in treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 33: 1513-1516.
31- Scherer H.W. 2001. Sulphur in crop production-invited paper. European Journal of Agronomy, 14: 81-111.
32- Schmidt B., Domonkos M., Sumalan R. and Biro B. 2010. Suppression of arbuscular mycorrhiza's development by high concentrations of phosphorous at Tagetes patula L. Journal of Agricultural Research, 42: 156-162.
33- Shaalan M.N. 2005. Effect of compost and different sources of biofertilizers, on borage plants (Borago officinalis L.). Egyptian Journal of Agricutural Research, 83: 271-284.
34- Shabahang J., Khorramdel S. and Gheshm R. 2013. Evaluation of symbiosis with mycorhizzal on yield, yield components and essential oil of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and ajowan (Carum copticum L.) under different nitrogen levels. Agroecology, 5(3): 289-298. (in Persian with English Summary).
35- Sharifi M., Mohtashamian M., Riyahi H., Aghaee A. and Alavi S.M. 2011. The effects of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungus Glomus etunicatum on growth and some physiological parameters of basil. Journal of Medicinal Plant, 10: 85-94. (in Persian with English Summary).
36- Tufenkci S., Sonmez F. and Sensoy R.I.G. 2006. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus inoculation and phosphorous and nitrogen fertilizations on some plant growth parameters and nutrient content of soybean. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 9: 1121-1127.
37- Verlinden G., Pycke B., Mertens J., Debersaques F., Verheyen K., Baert G., Bries J. and Haesaert G. 2009. Application of humic substances results in consistent increases in crop yield and nutrient uptake. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 32: 1407-1426.
38- Vessey J.K. 2003. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria as biofertilizers. Plant and Soil, 255: 571- 586.
39- Wu S.C., Caob Z.H., Lib Z.G., Cheunga K.C. and Wong M.H. 2005. Effects of biofertilizers containing N-fixer, P and K solubilizers and AM fungi on maize growth: a greenhouse trial. Geoderma, 125: 155-166.
40- Zhu C.X., Song B.F. and Xu W.H. 2010. Arbuscular mycorrhizae improves low temperature stress in maize via alterations in host water status and photosynthesis. Plant and Soil, 331: 129–137.