بهینه سازی اندام زایی غیرمستقیم گیاه آنتوریوم (Anthuriumscherzerianum)

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 جهاد دانشگاهی مشهد

چکیده

آنتوریوم گلدانی(Anthuriumscherzerianum)یک گیاهزینتی چند سالهاست که به دلیل مشکلات تکثیر سنتی در این گیاه، از کشت بافت به عنوان روشی مناسب برای تکثیر سریع و حذف بیماری‌های آن نام برده می شود. در این پژوهش اثر تنظیم کننده-های رشد گیاهی و نوع ریزنمونه بر روی باززایی غیرمستقیم A.scherzerianum مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. به منظور القای کالوس در ریزنمونه‌های برگ و دمبرگ آنتوریوم اثر سطوح مختلف تنظیم کننده‌های رشد BA و TDZ (5/0، 1 و 2 میلی گرم بر لیتر) در ترکیب با NAA یا 2,4-D (5/0، 1 و 2 میلی گرم بر لیتر) در محیط کشت پایه MSدر شرایط تاریکی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت.برای القای باززایی در کالوس‌های تولید شده اثر سطوح پایین تر سایتوکنین‌ها و اکسین‌ها در محیط کشت پایه MS بررسی شد. برای ریشه‌زایی گیاهچه‌های، از محیط کشت1⁄2MS حاوی ترکیبات هورمونی IBA و IAA استفاده شد. نتایج آزمایش‌ها نشان داد که ریزنمونه دمبرگ بیشترین کالوس‌زایی، درصد زنده‌مانی و حجم کالوس را در محیط کشت حاوی 2 میلی گرم در لیتر BAو 5/0 میلی گرم در لیتر 2,4-D تولید کرد. همچنین نتایج آزمایش باززایی نشان داد که در ترکیب هورمونی 75/0 میلی گرم در لیتر BAو 05/0 میلی گرم در لیتر2,4-D بیشترین تعداد شاخساره (9/6)، طول شاخساره (5 سانتی متر) تولید شد. در آزمایش ریشه‌زایی نیز بیشترین درصد ریشه‌زایی (95 درصد)، تعداد ریشه (5/4) و طول ریشه (5/3 سانتی متر) در محیط کشت حاوی 2/0 میلی گرم در لیتر IBAبدست آمد. در نهایت گیاهچه‌های ریشه دار شده، برای سازگاری با شرایط برون شیشه‌ای در بستر کوکوپیت و پرلیت (2:1) 90 درصد سازگار شدند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Optimization of Indirect Regeneration in Anthuriumscherzerianum

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ahmad Noroozi 1
  • Abdolreza Bagheri 1
  • Nasrin Moshtaghi 1
  • Ahmad Sharifi 2
1 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
2 ACECR, Mashhad Branch
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Anthurium is a popular genus of the Araceae (order Spathiflorae).The flower consists of a protruding spadix containing numerous florets, subtended by a brightly colored modified leaf, the spathe. Anthuriums are bisexual and protogynous.Anthuriumscherzerianum as the most important species ofAnthurium genus is a potted perennial plant. Due to having beautiful, attractive and long-life flowers, A. scherzerianum can be used for the production of pot and cut flowers. Tissue culture is suggested as the most commonly method in order to rapid propagation and removing disease in a short period of time. This method also recommended for Anthuriumbecause of problems in classical propagation method of this flower..The three basic propagation methods for Anthuriumare propagation by seed, traditional vegetative and tissue culture.Micropropagation of Anthurium is using forcommercial production.
Materials and Methods: In this study, the effect of plant growth regulators and explants on indirect regeneration of A. scherzerianumdetermined in separate experiments. In the first experiment, callogenesis was done by leaf explants on MS medium containing growth regulators, BA in three concentrations (0.5, 1.25 and 2 mg/l) in combination with
2, 4-D (0.5, 1.25 and 2 mg/l) or NAA (0.5, 1.25 and 2 mg/l) and the combinations of TDZ (0.5, 1.25 and 2 mg/l) with
2, 4-D (0, 0.5 mg/l). In the second experiment, regeneration was done on MS medium containing 0.75 mg/l BA with 0.05 mg/l 2, 4-D and 0.1 mg/l NAA and also in combination with TDZ (0.75mg/l). For rooting, MS medium containing different concentrations of IBA and IAA (0, 0.2 and 1 mg/l) were used. Callus induction, regeneration and rooting experiments were done based on completely randomized design, with 12, 6 and 6 replications, respectively.Data from all the schemes used in this study were analyzed with SAS statistical software. The comparison of means using Duncan's multiple range test was evaluated at the 5% level.
Results and Discussion: Analysis of variance showed that the effect of explant type and hormone combinations was significant on the percentage of callogenesis, callus volume and survival percentage. The interaction effect of explant type and combination of hormones was also significant on percentage of callogenesisand the volume of callus. Means comparisons showed that the highest callogenesis, viability and callus volume were achieved on MS medium containing 2 mg/l of BA and 0.5 mg/l of 2, 4-D. Petiole explants, also produced the highest percentage of callus (95%), survival rate (96%) and callus with dimensions of 6 mm2. Callus formation in leaf vein explants was higher than others. The effect of explant type and hormone combinations on regeneration, number of branches, number of leaves and leaf length was significant.The interaction of explant and hormone combinations on regeneration, number of branches, number of leaves and leaf length was also significant. Moreover, results of regeneration experiment indicated that the maximum number of shoots (6.9) and the maximum shoot length (5 cm), number of leaves (18) and the leaf length (2.8 mm) were achieved in 0.75 mg/l BA mg/l of and 0.05 mg/l 2, 4-D. In this study, petiole explants were also regenerated earlier than leaf explants.The effect of hormone combinations and concentrations was significant on rooting specially on the number of roots and root length.Furthermore, results of rooting experiment revealed that the highest rooting percentage (95%), the maximum number of roots (4.5 per plantlet) and the longest roots (3.5 cm) were produced in the medium containing 0.2 mg/l of IBA. Finally, the rooted plantlets were adapted (90%) in vivo condition by placing them on a mixture of cocopeat and perlite (2:1) substrate.
Conclusion: In this study callugensis, regeneration and rooting of A.scherzerianum’s petiole and leaf explants were studied and different levels of plant growth regulators used for callugensis and regeneration. In this study petiole explants showed the highest callugenesis and regeneration. MS medium containing BA (2 mg/l) and 2, 4-D (0.5 mg/l), was the best for callugenesis. Also the highest percentage of regeneration was observed in medium containing BA (0.75 mg/l) and 2, 4-D (0.05 mg/l). Moreover low concentration (0.2 mg/l) of auxin has a better effect on rooting than high levels (1mg/l) so that the highest rooting percentage was produced in medium containing IBA (0.2 mg/l) and the lowest rooting percentage was produced in medium containing IAA (1 mg/l). Anthurium plantlets acclimized is cocopeat and perlite substrate (2: 1) with 90% acclimation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Callus
  • Growth regulators
  • Regeneration
  • Rooting
  • Tissue culture
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