اثر ریزموجودات مفید و سطوح مختلف نیتروژن بر خصوصیات مورفولوژیکی و عملکرد توت‌فرنگی رقم پاروس

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر ریزموجودات مفید ((Effective Microorganisms (EM) در سطوح مختلف نیتروژن بر عملکرد و کیفیت توت‌فرنگی رقم پاروس، آزمایشی به‌صورت کرت‌های دو بار خردشده در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار طی سال‌های 94-1393در دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اجرا شد. در این بررسی تیمارهای آزمایش، EM در چهار سطح (صفر، یک، دو و سه درصد)، روش‌های کاربرد EM در دو سطح (کاربرد خاکی و محلول‌پاشی) و نیتروژن در سه سطح (50، 100 و 150 کیلوگرم خالص در هکتار) اعمال گردیدند. شاخص‌های مورد بررسی شامل سطح برگ، تعداد گل، تعداد میوه، طول، حجم، وزن تر و خشک، عملکرد، ویتامین‌ث، مواد جامد محلول، اسیدیته کل، عمر انباری و درصد تشکیل میوه اندازه‌گیری شد. نتایج تجزیه واریانس داده‌ها نشان داد که اثر غلظت‌های مختلف ریزموجودات مفید در سطح احتمال یک درصد بر صفات وزن‌تر و ‌خشک ریشه، طول ریشه، تعداد رانر، کلروفیل کل، سطح برگ و عملکرد و در سطح احتمال پنج درصد بر میزان وزن تر و خشک برگ، کلروفیل a و b معنی‌دار بوده است، بر اساس نتایج، اثر روش‌های مختلف کاربرد EM و اثرات متقابل تیمارها در هیچ یک از شاخص‌ها اختلاف قابل‌توجهی نداشتند. بر اساس نتایج تجزیه واریانس داده‌ها، سطوح نیتروژن بر صفات وزن‌تر ریشه، طول ریشه، تعداد رانر، کلرفیل a، b و کل، سطح برگ و عملکرد در سطح احتمال یک درصد و بر روی صفات وزن‌تر برگ، وزن خشک برگ و ریشه در سطح احتمال پنج درصد اثر معنی‌داری داشتند. بر اساس نتایج این بررسی غلظت دو درصد و سه درصد ریزموجودات مفید و همچنین سطح 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار نیتروژن اثرهای مثبتی بر روی شاخص‌های اندازه‌گیری شده نسبت به شاهد داشتند.
بر اساس نتایج تجزیه واریانس داده‌ها، سطوح نیتروژن بر صفات وزن‌تر ریشه، طول ریشه، تعداد رانر، کلرفیل a، b و کل، سطح برگ و عملکرد در سطح احتمال یک درصد و بر روی صفات وزن‌تر برگ، وزن خشک برگ و ریشه در سطح احتمال پنج درصد اثر معنی‌داری داشتند. بر اساس نتایج این بررسی غلظت دو درصد و سه درصد ریزموجودات مفید و همچنین سطح 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار نیتروژن اثرهای مثبتی بر روی شاخص‌های اندازه‌گیری شده نسبت به شاهد داشتند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Impactof Effective Microorganisms and Nitrogen Levels on Morphological Characteristics and Yield of Strawberry cv. Paros

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Akbar Shokouhian
  • Shahryar Einizadeh
University of Mohaghegh Ardabili
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Insemination combined Effective Microorganisms (EM) to the plant ecosystem can improve photosynthesis and yield of fruit plants. The useful microorganisms contained in effective microorganisms (EM) mix include photosynthetic bacteria (Rhodopseudomonaspalustris, Rhodobactersphacrodes), lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei, Streptococcus), yeasts (Saccharomyces spp.), actinomycetes (Streptomyces spp.) and fermentation fungi (Aspergillus, Penicillium).When EM applied with the soil or sprayed on the plant will be expanded, the population of photosynthetic bacteria and nitrogen stabilizer. Optimal nitrogen consumption not only causes delays old age it will also change the appearance of the plant. The availability of nitrogen to the roots especially in the early stages of growth causes elongation of the aerial parts of the plant. Proper use of nitrogen has a positive effect on flower number and the beginning of flowering in pepper but high consumption of this element has caused a delay in the formation of flowers and increase plant growth. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Effective Microorganisms by two methods of soil application and foliar application in different nitrogen levels on yield and morphological characteristics of strawberry cv. Paros
Materials and Methods: In order to study the impact of effective microorganisms (EM) on morphological characteristics and yield of strawberry cv. Paros a split-split-plots experiment was conducted based on Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with foliar and soil treatments of effective microorganisms, each in four levels (control, one, two and three percent) and nitrogen treatment in the form of urea fertilizer in three levels (50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1of the net nitrogen) with three replications in University of Mohaghegh Ardabili during 2014-2015 years. Land was prepared in late August and potassium and phosphorous fertilizers were added as 150 and 50 kgha-1, respectively. Strawberries were planted in early November 2014 in double rows on beds covered with black polyethylene foil.Nitrogen levels in the main plots, methods of application of EM in the subplots, the concentration of effective microorganisms in the sub-sub plots were placed.Half of the amount of nitrogen at planting time, 25 percent in the April and 25 percent in the May was given with irrigation water to plants.Treatments of EM, after the start of growth seedlings weekly basis a period of two months, were applied. In soil treatment with irrigation water and foliar Treatments be applied after the irrigation (control plants with distilled water). In this study were measured traits leaf and root dry weight, root length, number of runner, chlorophyll a, band total leaf and yield. Data were analyzed by SAS ver9.3 software and means were compared by LSD test (P≤0.05).
Results: Analysis of variance showed that the effect of different levels of effective microorganisms at the level of 1% probability were observed significant difference in the characters fresh and dry weight of root, root length, number of runner, total chlorophyll, leaf area and yield and in the probability level 5% is significant on the characters fresh and dry weight of leaves, chlorophyll aand b. Based on the results the effect of different methods of application of EM and interaction effects were not significant differences in any of the studied indicators.According to the analysis of variance,using of nitrogen had significant effect on the fresh weight yield root, root length, number of runner, chlorophyll A, B and total leaf area and yield at1% probability. The treatments had also significant effect on fresh and dry weight of leaf and root traitsat 5%,probability. Based on the results of this study the concentration of 1% and 3%of effective microorganisms and 100 kgNha-1 have positive effects on the parameters compared to the control.The results indicated that 2% EM was treated with a maximum of 185 g, and control treatment with 136 g had the lowest yield per plant.Fruit yield in plant with nitrogen application at 100 kg ha-1had the highest production (188 g) among nitrogen levels.
Conclusion: According to the results of this review, the best result was in treatment 2% of EM and 100 kg of nitrogen per hectare. Method used of EM in this study had no significant difference; accordingly method of consumption has no impact on the traits mentioned.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chlorophyll
  • Fresh and dryweight
  • Root length
  • Soil application
  • Spraying
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