کاربرد قبل از برداشت کلریدکلسیم، پوترسین و سالیسیلیک اسید بر کیفیت میوه کنارهندی (Ziziphus mauritiana) ژنوتیپ خرمایی

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه هرمزگان

2 سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، قزوین

چکیده

کیفیت میوه مانند یکسانی رنگ، سفتی بافت میوه، اندازه و نسبت گوشت به هسته آن نقش مهمی در بازارپسندی میوه دارد. در این پژوهش اثر محلول‌پاشی غلظت‌های مختلف کلرید‌کلسیم، پوترسین و سالیسیلیک اسید بر کیفیت و کمیت میوه کنار هندی رقم خرمایی بررسی شد. میوه‌ها از درختان هم‌سن طی دو مرحله قبل از بلوغ تجاری با کلریدکلسیم ( 0، 5/0 و5/1 درصد)، پوترسین ( 0، 1 و 2 میلی مولار) و اسید سالیسیلیک ( 0، 1و2 میلی مولار) محلول‌پاشی شدند. از آب مقطر نیز به عنوان تیمار شاهد استفاده شد. میوه‌ها پس از برداشت، بلافاصله به آزمایشگاه منتقل و پارامترهای کمی و کیفی از قبیل میزان سفتی بافت، طول میوه، قطر میوه، حجم آب میوه، نسبت گوشت به هسته، مواد جامد محلول، اسیدیته قابل تیتراسیون، pH، اسید آسکوربیک، رنگریزه‌ها، پارامترهای رنگی و فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی اندازه‌گیری شدند. نتایج نشان داد که محلول‌پاشی ترکیبات شیمیایی به طور مطلوبی بر ویژگی‌های کمی و کیفی تاثیرگذار بود. میوه‌های تیمار شده در مقایسه با شاهد مواد جامد محلول، کاروتنوئید و درجه قرمزی رنگ کمتری داشتند ولی میزان سفتی بافت، طول و قطر میوه، حجم آب میوه، نسبت گوشت به هسته، اسیدیته قابل تیتراسیون، pH، ویتامین ث، فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی، کلروفیل a و b، شاخص کروما و درجه هیو آن‌ها بیشتر بود. درجه روشنایی و زردی رنگ میوه‌های تیمار شده با شاهد تفاوت معنی‌داری نداشتند. به طورکلی کلریدکلسیم درغلظت 5/0 درصد، سالیسیلیک اسید در غلظت 2 میلی‌مولار و پوترسین نیز در غلظت 2 میلی‌مولار نقش موثر‌تری در بهبود خصوصیات مختلف میوه داشتند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Preharvest Application of Calcium Chloride, Putrescine and Salicylic Acid on Some Quality and Quantity Characters of Hindi ber (Ziziphus mauritiana khormaee)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fateme Shabbepour Bandari 1
  • somayeh rastegar 1
  • Mostafa Ghasemi 2
1 University of Hormozgan
2 Qazvin Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Ziziphus mauritiana is a drought-tolerant fruit tree that originated in Central Asia. Ziziphus mauritiana v. khormaee is one of the cultivars of Hindi Ber which was favored by many people in the world and Iran. Maintenance of fruit quality is critical while employing any new technology for increasing production. Fruit quality such as color, firmness, size, antioxidant and pulp to seed ratio had important role in marketability of fruits that can be affected by some chemicals. The quality of fruit can be influenced by growth conditions, developmental stage at harvest and postharvest factors. Calcium treatment, either by prearrest foliar sprays or by postharvest dips, represents a safe and potentially effective method for increasing the quality of some fruits. Prearrest treatments are more effective when calcium is applied directly to the fruit surface, since calcium moves in the transpiration stream and little or no subsequent translocation occurs from leaf to fruit. Calcium is an essential element which involved in cell division, elongation and fruit growth. Polyamines have the properties of growth promoters. Exogenous application of PAs has been reported to improve fruit retention and yield of fruits. Although a number of studies demonstrated the significance of PAs in reducing fruit drop and improving yield in various fruit crops, information on their effects on fruit quality is scant. Salicylic acid (SA) is an endogenous growth regulator of phenolic nature, which participates in the regulation of physiological processes in plants. Little information is available on the effects of foliar application of different Pas, salicylic acid and calcium on the quality of Ber fruit.
Materials and Methods: In this study, we evaluated the effect of foliar application of calcium chloride, putrescine and salicylic acid in various concentrations on fruit quality and quantity characters of Hindi ber(Ziziphusmauritiana. khormaee). Fruits selected from trees of the same age with branches of the same height and spraying with calcium chloride (0.5 and 1.5%), putrescine (1 and 2 mM), salicylic acid (1 and 2 mM) and distilled water (control) in two stages before commercial maturity. First stage, when fruit were 5-10 mm in size and second stage, when fruit color break. After the harvest fruit were transferred immediately to the laboratory and measured quantitative and qualitative parameters such as firmness, fruit length, fruit diameter, volume of fruit juice, pulp to seed ratio, soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, ascorbic acid, chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids, color parameters and antioxidant activity. The length and diameter of the fruit were measured using a micrometer caliper. Total soluble solids (TSS) were determined using a digital refractometer. Firmness values of each individual fruit were measured at two points of the equatorial region by using a texture analyzer with a 5 mm Lurton 5005 probe. Fruits surface color was measured on individual fruit from each replicate at two opposite sides using a chromameter (CR 400, Minolta).For vitamin C (ascorbic acid) determination the titrimetric method with 2, 6-dichlorophenolindophenol reagent was applied. Antioxidant activity of fruit was tested by free radical DPPH scavenging.
Results and Discussion: The results showed that foliar application of calcium chloride, putrescine and salicylic acid favorably was effective on quantitative and qualitativecharacteristics Hindi Ber genotype.Kormaed. In treated fruits, total soluble solids (TSS), carotenoids and a* value were less and degree of firmness, fruit length, diameter, volume of fruit juice, pulp to seed ratio, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid (vitamin C), antioxidant activity, chlorophyll a and b, chroma index and hue angle were higher than control. Parameters of L* and b* in treated fruits had not significant different with control. Control fruits had the minimum carotenoid and the maximum chlorophyll. Fruit treated with putrescin(2mM) and control has the highest L* value. Different concentration of treatment that used hadn’t any significant difference with together in antioxidant characters. Maximum and the minimum firmness were found in salicylic acid (1mM) and control respectively. Among different treatments, CaCl2 1.5% showed highest volume of fruit juice of course had not significant difference with other treatments. The highest total soluble solids observed in control and highest vitamin C value showed in putrescin treatments
Conclusions: Generally, our result showed treatments that study in this study were effective on quality of Ber fruit. Calcium chloride (0.5 %), putrescine (2 mM), salicylic acid (2 mM) had the best effect on fruit quality. Therefor this chemical can be used to improve Ber fruit quality for consumer and marketing.


Materials and Methods: In this study, we evaluated the effect of foliar application of calcium chloride, putrescine and salicylic acid in various concentrations on fruit quality and quantity charachters of Hindi ber (Ziziphus mauritiana genotype.khormaee). Fruits selected from trees of the same age with branches of the same height and spraying with calcium chloride (0/5 and 1.5%), putrescine (1 and 2 mM), salicylic acid (1 and 2 mM) and distilled water (control) in two stages before commercial maturity. First stage, when fruit were 5-10 mm in size and second stage, when fruit color break. After the harvest fruit were transferred immediately to the laboratory and measured quantitative and qualitative parameters such as firmness, fruit length, fruit diameter, volume of fruit juice, pulp to seed ratio, soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, ascorbic acid, chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids, color parameters and antioxidant activity. The length and diameter of the fruit were measured using a micrometer caliper. Total soluble solids (TSS) were determined using a digital refractometer. Firmness values of each individual fruit were measured at two points of the equatorial region by using a texture analyzer with a 5 mm Lurton 5005 probe. Fruits surface color was measured on individual fruit from each replicate at two opposite sides using a chromameter (CR 400, Minolta). For vitamin C (ascorbic acid) determination the titrimetric method with 2, 6-dichlorophenolindophenol reagent was applied. Free radical scavenging activity (antioxidant activity) of fruit was tested by DPPH.
Results and Discussion: The results showed that foliar application of calcium chloride, putrescine and salicylic acid favorably was effective on quantitative and qualitative characteristics Hindi ber genotype. Kormaed. In Treated Fruits, Total Soluble Solids (TSS), carotenoids and a* value were less and degree of firmness, fruit length, diameter, volume of fruit juice, pulp to seed ratio, titratable acidity, Ascorbic acid (vitamin C), antioxidant activity, chlorophyll a and b, chroma index and hue angle were higher than control. Parameters of L* and b* in treated fruits had not significant different with control. Control fruits had the minimum carotenoid and the maximum chlorophyll rather than other treatments. Fruit treated with Putrescin (2mM) and control has the highest L* value. Different concentration of treatment that used hadn’t any significant difference with together in antioxidant characters. Maximum and the minimum firmness were found in Salicylic acid (1Mm) and control respectively. Among different treatments, Cacl2 1.5% showed highest volume of fruit juice of course had not significant difference with other treatments. Control showed the highest Total Soluble Solids and significant differences with other fruits. Putrescin in both concentration had highest vitamin C content that had significant difference with control fruits.
Conclusions: Generally, our result showed treatment that study in this study were effect on quality of Ber fruit. Calcium chloride (0/5 %), putrescine (2 mM), salicylic acid (2 mM) had the best effect on fruit quality. Therefor this chemical can be used for improve Ber fruit quality for consumer and marketing.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Antioxidant activity
  • Color
  • Firmness
  • Size
  • vitamin C
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