ارزیابی تنوع ژنتیکی و وراثت‌پذیری برخی خصوصیات میوه ژنوتیپ‌های انار

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه شهرکرد

2 شهرکرد

چکیده

انار (Punica granatum L.) یک محصول مهم باغی و بومی ایران است که مصرف میوه و یا فرآورده‌های مختلف آن رایج است. با توجه به اینکه ایران دارای غنی­ترین ذخیره ژنتیکی انار می­باشد، اطلاع از میزان تنوع صفات مختلف و وراثت‌پذیری آنها در بین ژنوتیپ­های موجود و شناسایی ژنوتیپ­های پر محصول جهت استفاده در برنامه­های اصلاحی از اهمیت خاصی برخوردار است. در این تحقیق برخی خصوصیات میوه 156 ژنوتیپ موجود در کلکسیون انار ساوه، با استفاده از 16صفت مورفولوژیکی و شیمیایی میوه در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی در سه تکرار مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. براساس نتایج تجزیه واریانس، اثر ژنوتیپ در کلیه صفات بسیار معنی­دار بود. از 9 صفت مورفولوژیکی، صفات تعداد دانه در 100 گرم آریل و ضخامت پوست میوه تنوع بیشتری نسبت به سایر صفات دارند و از بین صفات بیوشیمیایی صفات شاخص رسیدگی، میزان آنتوسیانین و رنگ قابل جذب آبمیوه دارای بیشترین تنوع بودند که امکان استفاده از تنوع موجود در مراحل بعدی اصلاح انار را مهیا می­کند. ارتباط معنی‌دار آماری نیز بین وزن میوه با صفات طول و عرض تاج، طول و عرض میوه، تعداد دانه در 100 گرم آریل، وزن آریل و نیز ضخامت پوست میوه وجود داشت که در اصلاح همزمان این صفات حائز اهمیت است. مقدار زیاد قابلیت توارث عمومی محاسبه شده برای وزن آریل، وزن میوه، تعداد دانه در 100 گرم آریل، و ضخامت پوست میوه دلالت بر کم بودن اثرات محیطی بر این صفات بوده و این صفات در فرآیندهای انتخاب نتاج در نسل­های متوالی قابل استفاده هستند. براساس نتایج این تحقیق، با توجه به نرم و ریز بودن دانه ژنوتیپ شیرین هسته ریز شهداد، این ژنوتیپ می­تواند در برنامه­های بعدی هیبریداسیون در جهت انتقال صفت نرم­دانگی به ژنوتیپ­های تجاری به عنوان والد مورد استفاده قرار گیرد. ژنوتیپ دومزه باغ ملک ایذه نیز، از نظر شکل میوه، رنگ میوه و طعم نسبت به سایر ژنوتیپ­ها برتر بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Genetic Variation and Heritability of Some Fruit Traits in Pomegranate Genotypes

نویسندگان [English]

  • behrouz moradi Ashour 1
  • Mohamad Rabiei 1
  • behrooz shiran 2
  • Sadollah Hooshmand 1
1 Shahrekord university
2 shahrekord university
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Pomegranate (Punica granatum L., Punicaceae family), a native Iranian horticultural plant, is used as fresh fruit and also for other products and has special economic position in the world. It is estimated that pomegranate fruit production in Iran was about 900000 tons in 2016 which provinces of Fars, Markazi, Khorasan, Yazd and Isfahan had the highest production respectively. Iran is the center of diversity and most probably center of origin of Pomegranate, so during the years, many attempts have been done to collect different genotypes. The National Research Station of Pomegranate of Saveh has three set collections including 760 genotypes collected from all around of Iran. Assessment of genetic variation among these genotypes to use in breeding programs should be considered as first priority. Researchers use different methods to measure genetic diversity of plants including DNA markers, isozymes and morphological traits. Using morphological characteristics that are easily measured and have high heritability is a convenient tool to assess the amount of genetic diversity of plants.
Material and Methods: In order to determine genetic variation and heritability on morpho-pomological traits, pomegranate genotypes were selected from different habitats of Iran that are already planted in the collection of National Research Station of Pomegranate of Saveh in 2016. Genotypes that had similar descriptor or genotypes that had not sufficient fruit to get involved in the experiment, were excluded. Selected genotypes (156 genotypes) were evaluated based on a completely randomized design with three replications using nine morphological traits including length of calyx, width of calyx, number of seed in 100-gram aril, thickness of peel, weight of fruit, length of fruit, width of fruit, weight of peel, weight of aril. Biochemical characteristics of fruit including total soluble solids, titrable acidity, maturity index, pH, EC, anthocyanincontain and absorbable color of juice were measured for each genotype without replication (five fruit were selected randomly for each genotype). Statistical analyses including analysis of variance, correlation coefficient, and broad sense heritability, phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation were estimated using SAS 9.0 software.
Results and Discussion: Analysis of variance showed that the effect of genotypes in each trait is highly significant (p-value=0.01), indicating a wide variation among these genotypes. Considering range for each trait reveals remarkable differences between genotypes especially for number of seed in 100-gram aril and anthocyanin content. Results showed that among 9 morphological traits, aril seed (g 100 aril-1) and peel thickness, also among 7 chemical traits, anthocyanin content, absorbable color of juice and maturity index had the highest variation. The most positive and significant correlation coefficients was observed between fruits weight with length and diameter of fruit, length and diameter of calyx, aril weight, seed number (g 100 aril-1) and peel thickness. Correlation between qualitative and quantitative traits were not significant. The highest phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation was observed on fruit weight, peel thickness, seed number (g 100 aril-1) and aril weight. A high broad sense heritability was observed for aril weight (g 100 aril-1), fruit weight and peel thickness.
Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, there was a high genetic variation among genotypes for most traits. As it was expected, Iranian collection of pomegranate is a rich source for this plant and highly supporter for other breeding researches. High correlation coefficient of fruit weight with other morphological traits is useful for early selection of high performance genotypes. For instant, genotypes with high diameter of calyx most probably will produce high yield. There was not statistically significant correlation between morphological and biochemical characteristics. That is to say genotypes with low yield should not be excluded in further research programs because of their beneficial biochemical traits; they can be involved in crosses with high yield genotypes to improve their biochemical characteristics. Pomnograte genotypes with good quality traits are also useful for industrial, pharmaceutical and nutraceutical purposes. Results of our experiment indicate that due high broad sense heritability of aril weight, fruit weight, peel thickness and aril weight, environmental effect on these traits is less than genetic effect. Therefore, selection based on these traits could successfully be used to improve genetic base of pomegranate genotypes in the next generations. Also based on the results of this research Hasteriz- Shahdad and Domaze- Izeh genotypes were the best for soft seed, color and flavor fruit.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Broad sense heritability
  • Correlation
  • Genetic variation
  • Pomegranate
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