تأثیر کود نیتروژن و کود زیستی فسفات بارور2 روی برخی ویژگی‌های پیاز رقم آذرشهر در منطقه ملکان

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد ملکان

2 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی مهاباد

چکیده

یکی از عوامل افزایش عملکرد پیاز، تعیین مقدار مناسب کود برای کشت این گیاه است. به منظور بررسی تأثیر کود ازته و فسفات زیستی بر خصوصیات کمی و کیفی پیاز قرمز آذرشهر، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در دو آزمایش جداگانه در سال زراعی 95-1394 اجرا شد. آزمایش اول شامل کود ازته در سه سطح (صفر، 60 و 120 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و محلول پاشی فسفات بارور2 در سه سطح (عدم محلول پاشی، 1 و 2 در هزار ) و آزمایش دوم، کود ازته در  سطوح مذکور و تلقیح بذر با فسفات بارور2 در سه سطح (عدم تلقیح، 1 و 2 در هزار) بود. نتایج حاکی از آن بود که کاربرد کود زیستی فسفات بارور2 و کود ازته باعث افزایش ارتفاع بوته، متوسط وزن پیاز، عملکرد پیاز، محتوای ترکیبات قندی، میزان پروتئین و شاخص کلروفیل شد. در آزمایش اول، بالاترین عملکرد پیاز (98/18 تن در هکتار)، متوسط وزن پیاز (51/127 گرم)، ارتفاع بوته (68/51 سانتی متر)، نیترات (2/116 میلی گرم بر کیلوگرم) و شاخص کلروفیل (12/64) با کاربرد 120 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود نیتروژن و بیشترین عملکرد پیاز (74/17 تن در هکتار)، متوسط وزن پیاز (112 گرم)، ارتفاع بوته (96/50 سانتی متر) و میزان پروتئین (96/9 گرم بر صد گرم) در تیمار محلول پاشی با غلظت 2 در هزار فسفات بارور2 مشاهده گردید. در آزمایش دوم نیز بیشترین مقدار صفات مذکور با کاربرد 120 کیلوگرم کود نیتروژن و به غیر از میزان نیترات در تلقیح بذور با غلظت 2 در هزار فسفات بارور2 به دست آمد. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Nitrogen and Phosphate Bio-fertilizer on Qualitative and Quantitative Characteristics of Azarshahr Red Onion Cultivar

نویسندگان [English]

  • alireza imani 1
  • mousa arshad 2
1 Islamic Azad University of Melkan
2 Islamic Azad University of Mahad
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Onion (Allium cepa L.) is a herbaceous, biennial, monocots and cross pollination and one of the most important vegetables around the world. This plant contains vitamin B, vitamin C, carbohydrates and a small amount of protein. Onions with substances such as fructans, flavonoids and organic sulfur has many medicinal properties. One of the factors increasing the onion growth is the application of a desirable quantity of foliar for the cultivation of this plant. With respect that nitrogen is one of the main ingredients of amino acid and chlorophyll, accelerating the rate of growth of this plant and increasing protein and activity of the plant, it is more effective for the plant. Nitrogen is a component of pigments, secondary metabolites and the main components of proteins and in other biological important biomolecules such as ATP and nucleic acids can also be found. Lack of nitrogen reduces the activity of nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, glutamine synthetase, glutamate synthetase and glutamine dehydrogenase. The relevant application of fertilizer has positive effect on the soil quality but also on the preservation of nitrogen and other soil ingredients and decreases a need for the fertilizers. Phosphorus plays an important role in plant metabolism, such as root development, photosynthesis, nutrient transport within the plant, meiosis, growth and development of reproductive organs is responsible. In this regard, the use of micro-organisms will help to reduce the amount of phosphorus fertilizers is expensive. Biological fertilizer has an important role in the dissolution of some elements such as phosphorus can be influenced in combined with phosphorus fertilizer. Since in our country due to drastic changes in pH, the amount of soluble phosphorus in rhizosphere is limited. Therefore use of bio-fertilizers releasing phosphorus for a large extent can be balanced difficult to absorb this nutrient, and the absorption of other nutrients in plants is effective as a quantitative measure.
Materials and Methods: Due to the importance of nutrition with bio-fertilizer and nitrogen fertilizer, its effects on yield and yield components of onion in city Malekan climatic conditions were evaluated. Therefore, in order to investigate the effect of nitrogen and bio-phosphate fertilizer on quantitative and qualitative characteristics Azarshahr red onion, factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design with three replications in two separate experiments were conducted in the crop year 2015-2016. First experiment included nitrogen fertilizer in three levels (0, 60 and 120 kg per hectare) and spraying bio-phosphate fertilizer (Barvar 2) on three levels (control, 1 and 2 per thousand) and the second experiment, nitrogen fertilizer at mentioned and inoculation seed with -bio-phosphate fertilizer (Barvar 2) in three levels (non-inoculated, 1 and 2 per thousand), respectively. Data from tests using SPSS software were analyzed and mean comparisons of data were performed using Duncan's multiple range test, finally required tables and charts using Excel software were drawn.
Results and Discussion: The analysis of data variance at first experiment indicated that the effect of nitrogen on all of studied traits without sugar content and bio-phosphate fertilizer (Barvar 2) on the plant height, average weight onion, yield, sugar compounds and protein rate without amount of nitrate and chlorophyll index were significant. On the other hand, effect of nitrogen was not significant for the average weight of onion and chlorophyll index. The effect of 2-bio-phosphate on the average weight of onion and sugar ingredient was significant. In the first experiment, the highest performance bulbs (18/98 T/h), average bulb weight (127/51 g), plant height (50/96 cm) and chlorophyll index with 120 kg per hectare nitrogen and yield bulbs, average bulb weight, height and amount of protein in the foliar concentration of 2 per thousand phosphate fertilizer 2 was observed. In the second experiment, most of these traits obtained from 120 kg of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer 2 inoculated seeds with a concentration of 2 per thousand, respectively.
Conclusion: In this survey, the utilization of the fertilizing bio-phosphate (Barvar 2) through two ways as diffusing and inoculating of solution causes the height of bushes, average eight , function, glucose composition and level of protein of onion to be increased. But the use of the biological phosphate through diffusing significantly decreases the amount of the stored nitrate in onion. This is one of the main and effective factors in the consumer's health. Despite that the application of nitrogen increases the effectiveness of onion, the amount of nitrate increases accordingly. The concurrent application of nitrogen and the fertilizing bio-phosphate (Barvar 2) will have more effect on onion. In the meantime, the leaf-application of the fertilizing bio-phosphate (Barvar 2) inclines the increasing effectiveness of Nitrogen on the amount of Nitrate.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Onion
  • Nitrogen
  • Bio-phosphate 2
  • Foliar application
  • Inoculation
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