بررسی اثر کلشیسین بر القاء پلی‌پلوئیدی و اثرات آن بر ویژگی‌های مورفولوژیکی و بیوشیمیایی شنبلیله

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه بوعلی سینا

2 ایلام

3 بوعلی همدان

4 بوعلی سینا

5 تحقیقات جنگل ها و مراتع

6 واحد علوم تحقیقات دانشگاه آزاد تهران

چکیده

القاء پلی‌پلوئیدی با استفاده از مواد شیمیایی جهش‌زا یکی از روش‌های به‌نژادی گیاهان دارویی به منظور افزایش قابلیت تولید متابولیت‌های ثانویه است. کلشیسین موثرترین ماده شیمیائی جهش‌زا در القا پلی‌پلوئیدی گیاهان می‌باشد. به منظور بررسی تاثیر تیمار کلشیسین بر القاء پلی‌پلوئیدی در گیاه دارویی شنبلیله (Trigonella foenum-graecum) پژوهشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با سه فاکتور کلشیسین (صفر، 05/0، 1/0، 2/0، 5/0 درصد وزن به حجم)، زمان (12، 24،  48 و 72 ساعت) و نمونه (بذر، مریستم ریشه و مریستم انتهایی) در 3 تکرار انجام شد. در این آزمایش اثر کلشیسین بر درصد صفات زنده­مانی، میکسوپلوئیدی و تتراپلوئیدی در نمونه‌های بذر، جوانه انتهایی و ریشه ارزیابی شد. بررسی‌ها نشان داد که بعد از تیمار شاهد بیشترین درصد زنده­مانی مربوط به غلظت 05/0 درصد کلشیسین برای نمونه جوانه انتهایی است و بالاترین درصد میکسوپلوئیدی مربوط به نمونه جوانه انتهایی با غلظت تیمار 1/0 و 2/0 درصد کلشیسین می­باشد. نتایج بررسی­های مورفولوژیکی، سیتوژنتیکی، فلوسایتومتری و بیوشیمیایی نشان داد که نمونه جوانه انتهایی در غلظت 5/0 درصد کلشیسین در مدت زمان 72 ساعت موثرترین تیمار در القاء تتراپلوئیدی در گیاه شنبلیله است. همچنین نتایج حاصل از  GC/MSبیانگر افزایش متابولیت­های ثانویه در گیاه تتراپلوئید نسبت به گیاه دیپلوئید شنبلیله بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Colchicine on Polyploidy Induction and Its Effects on Morphophysiological and Biochemical Properties of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Amir Hossein Keshtkar 1
  • Noosheen Fallahi 2
  • Mohammad Reza Abdollahi 3
  • Hasan Sarikhani 4
  • Hooshmand Safari 5
  • Zhale Mohseni Araghi 6
1 Bu- Ali Sina University
2 Ilam
3 Bu-Ali Sina
4 Bu-Ali Sina
5 Department of Forests and Rangelands, Kermanshah Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center. I.R. Iran
6 College of Agricultire Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Polyploidy plays an important role in creation of genetic variability. Polyploidy induction by mutagenic chemicals such as colchicine is considered to enhance the potential of secondary metabolites production in herbs breeding. Colchicine is the most effective chemicals used in the polyploidy induction studies. The effect of colchicine is to form cells with two or multiply number of chromosomes resulting in a lack of germination and death of a large number of plant samples.  Flow cytometry analysis and cytogenetic studies were effectively used to assess the ploidy levels for fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) plants. In the beginning of 90 decade, a new type of adsorption technique called solid-phase micro extraction (SPME) has been developed by Pawliszyn and co-workers. This method compared to the traditional techniques, offers many advantages such as the high sensitivity and reproducibility, does not require solvent, and combines extraction and pre-concentration in a single step without pre-treatment of samples. Moreover, it is a fast and inexpensive method, requires low sample volume and it can be easily automated. Solid-phase micro extraction (SPME) uses a fine rod (fused silica or metal) with a polymeric coating to extract organic compounds from their matrix and it directly transfer them into the gas chromatograph injector for thermal desorption and analysis (Kaykhaii, 2008). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of colchicine treatment on ploidy levels and compare some of the morphological, physiological, cytogenetical, flow cytometric analysis and biochemical characteristics in diploid and tetraploid fenugreek plants.
Materials and Methods: In order to investigate the effect of polyploidy induction by colchicine on Trigonella foenum-graecum medicinal species, an experiment was planned as a factorial completely randomized design with five concentrations of colchicine (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5%) for 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. In this experiment the effect of colchicine was examined on the percentage of survival and tetraploidy of seed, root and terminal bud samples. Level of ploidy was identified in survival explants through root tip chromosome counting and flow cytometry of leaf samples. In addition to distinguish tetraploid from the diploids plants, morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics were considered in treated plants. SAS and SPSS software programs were used to analysis of variance and comparison of means by Duncan's multiple test. Graphs were also drawn by EXCEL software.
Results and Discussion: The analysis of variance showed that all characteristic factors for survival percent and mixoploidy percentage were statistically significant. Survival percentage was decreased with increasing of colchicine concentration and increased exposure time of colchicine-treated seed. After the observation of morphological changes, the samples were considered to assess the ploidy levels by flow cytometry system. Results showed that 0.5% colchicine concentration had the highest survival rate after control treatment for the terminal bud. The highest percentage of mixoploidy was also observed in treated terminal buds with 0.1 and 0.2% of colchicine concentrations. Morphological, physiological, cytogenetic, flow cytometric analysis and biochemical studies confirmed that terminal bud treatment with 0.2% colchicine for 72 hours is the most effective treatment to induce tetraploidy in fenugreek plant. The results of GC/MS also indicated an increase in secondary metabolites content, but traits including growth rate and plant height of tetraploid reduced compared to the diploid plants. Result of this study showed a significant increase in chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll contents of tetraploid plants, which were higher than the levels of diploid plants.
Conclusion: Polyploidy induction using mutagenic chemicals is one of the methods to enhance the production of plant secondary metabolites. Colchicine is the most effective mutagenic chemical in inducing plant polyploidy. Although, flow cytometry is an expensive method, it is increasingly used for ploidy screening by analyzing of nuclear DNA content. In this study, both flow cytometry and chromosome microscopic examinations were used to test ploidy. The two methods were compared, and it was found that flow cytometry testing was fast and labor saving, especially in case of a large number of samples. Tetraploidy induction significantly affected different morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics of Trigonella foenum-graecum. These changes suggested that ploidy manipulation as a rapid and effective method for enhancing genetic diversity and metabolite production for this plant. SMPE method offers a number of practical advantages: smaller sample volume, simplicity of extraction and low cost, when compared to the other methods that are currently being used.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • GC/MS
  • flow cytometry
  • Mutation
  • Secondary metabolites
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