نقش فرمولاسیون‌های مختلف کودی بر گیاهچه‌های کشت بافتی ژربرا (Gerbera jamesonii) در مرحله سازگاری

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 جهاد دانشگاهی خراسان رضوی

2 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

در کشاورزی سنتی، عموماً غلظت بالایی از عناصر غذایی در اختیار گیاه قرار می‌گیرد و بخش اعظمی از آن از طریق آبشویی خارج شده و در دسترس گیاه قرار نمی‌گیرد. چنانچه بتوان با مدیریت صحیح، نیاز تغذیه‌ای گیاه را مشخص نمود، می‌توان کارایی مصرف کود را افزایش و همچنین از آلودگی زیست محیطی ناشی از مصرف بیش از حد کودهای شیمیایی در کشور جلوگیری نمود. بنابراین پژوهش حاضر با هدف افزایش راندمان مصرف کود از طریق انتخاب تیمار کودی بهینه و سطح مطلوب آن جهت سازگاری و رشد مناسب گیاهچه‌های کشت بافتی ژربرا انجام شد. در آزمایش اول تیمارهای کودی مختلف با نسبت‌های متفاوت فسفر و پتاسیم (PK) در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با 10 تکرار مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت که نتایج حاکی از تاثیر مطلوب تیمار کودی گروه دو (با مقادیر 99/7 میلی مولار نیتروژن، 06/1 میلی مولار فسفر و 77/4 میلی مولار پتاسیم) بر پارامترهای رشدی گیاهچه‌های کشت بافتی ژربرا بود. در آزمایش دوم غلظت‌های مختلف تیمار کودی گروه دوم (x5/0، x1 و x5/1) در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با 15 تکرار مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت تا سطح بهینه این تیمار کودی تعیین گردد. نتایج نشان داد که گیاهچه‌های رشد یافته تحت تیمار x5/1 کود گروه دوم، از شاخص‌های رشدی مطلوب‌تری در مقایسه با دو تیمار دیگر برخوردار بودند و میانگین‌های بالاتری را از لحاظ وزن خشک ریشه و شاخساره به خود اختصاص دادند. لذا به منظور سازگاری و رشد مطلوب گیاهچه‌های کشت بافتی ژربرا، تیمار کودی گروه دو با غلظت x5/1 توصیه می‌گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Role of Various Fertilizer Formulations on in vitro Derived Gerbera Plantlets (Gerbera jamesonii) during Acclimatization Phase

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ahmad Sharif 1
  • Mahdiyeh Kharrazi 1
  • sabra Nejatizadeh 2
  • Azadeh Khadem 1
  • Maryam Moradian 1
چکیده [English]

Introduction: In traditional agriculture, a high concentration of nutrients is generally available to the plant, and a large amount of it will be leached out and is not available to the plant. But, if properly managed, the nutritional needs of the plant can be identified; it can increase the efficiency of fertilizer use and also prevent the environmental pollution caused by excessive use of chemical fertilizers in the country. Therefore, the aim of this study was to increase the fertilizer utilization efficiency by choosing optimal fertilizer treatment and its optimum level for acclimation and optimum growth of gerbera tissue culture plantlets.
Material and methods: In the first experiment, different fertilizer treatments with different proportions of NPK were evaluated in a completely randomized design with 10 replications. In the second experiment, the different concentrations of the secondary group treatment (0.5x, 1x and 1.5x) were evaluated to determine the optimum level of fertilizer treatment. This experiment also was conducted in a completely randomized design with 15 replications. At the end of each experiment different parameters such as leaf number, petiole length, shoot dry and fresh weight, main root number, root length, secondary root number, root volume, root dry and fresh weight, chlorophyll a, b and total content were measured. Data preparation was done in Excel and data analysis was performed using the Jump 8 software. Mean comparison between treatments was performed with LSD test at 5% probability level and charts were drawn using Excel program.
Results and discussion: The results showed that the maximum root length, root volume, root dry and fresh weight and secondary root number was obtained from plantlets that was treated by the fertilizer treatment of the second group: K2SO4 (0.22 mM), KNO3 (3.62 mM), KH2PO4 (0.71 mM), NH4H2PO4 (0.35 mM), NH4NO3 (0.53 mM), Ca(NO3)2,4H2O (1.48 mM), MgSO4, 7H2O (0.4 mM), MnCl2, 4H2O (0.0049 mM), H3BO3 (0.020 mM), ZnSO4 (0.0061 mM), CuSO4, 5H2O (0.00048 mM), NaMoO4, 2H2O (0.00058 mM), FeSO4, 7H2O (0.0348 mM), Na2EDTA (0.0384 mM). So among the different fertilizer treatment, application of the fertilizer treatment of the second group was recommended. Calculation of nitrate and ammonium content used in six fertilizer treatments showed that the amount of ammonium used in fertilizer had a significant effect on root number and root dry weight. The maximum root number and root dry weight were observed in the second fertilizer group and then in the first fertilizer group. Urea was not used as a source of nitrogen in the fertilizer formula of these two treatments, while in other fertilizer treatments; urea fertilizer was used in addition to other sources of nitrogen supply. Since urea is converted into ammonium before its absorption by the plant, its application in the fertilizer formula has an effect on the amount of ammonium used in the fertilizer composition. It increases the ratio of ammonium to nitrate in fertilizer composition, which in turn influences root function. The ratio of potassium to phosphorus in the research of Khalaj et al. (4.40) is approximately as the same as the ratio of potassium to phosphorus used in the second group fertilizer treatment (4.50). The results of this ratio were also corresponded to Zheng et al. (4.6), Paradikovic et al (4.4), Hahn et al (4), Savvas and Gizas (4.8).The results of second experiment showed that plantlets grown under 1.5x concentration of second group fertilizer had better growth indices than two other treatments and had higher means in terms of root and shoot dry weight and petiole length. After counting the number of produced leaves at the end of the experiment, signs of leaf necrosis was observed under some treatments. Plantlets treated with 1 and 0.5 x concentrations of the second group treatment showed the highest incidence of leaf necrosis. Application of 1.5 x concentration of the second group treatment resulted in a 40% decrease in leaf necrosis symptoms compared to the other treatments. Also, the highest percentage of healthy leaves was obtained from 1.5 x concentration of the second group treatment, which showed a significant difference with the other treatments.
Conclusion: Generally, for the purpose of acclimation and optimal growth of gerbera tissue culture plantlets, fertilizer treatment of the second group {15(N), 10(P2O5), 30(K2O), 11.10(CaO), 2.10(MgO)} at a concentration of 1.5x is recommended.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Growth indices
  • Different concentrations of fertilizer treatment
  • NPK ratios
  • Nutrition requirements
1. Amin, N., Sajid, M., Sajid, M., Qayyum, M.M., Shah, S.T. and Fazl-i-Wahid, R.S.H., 2015. Response of gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii) to different levels of phosphorus and potassium. International Journal of Biosciences, 7(4), pp.1-11.
2. Bellubbi, S.B., Kulkarni, B.S. and Patil, C.P., 2015. Effect of integrated nutrient management on growth and flowering of gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii L.) under naturally ventilated polyhouse condition. International Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, 1(1): 69-74.
3. Bres, W., Kozlowska, A. and Walczak, T., 2013. Effect of nutrient solution concentration on yield and quality of gerbera grown in perlite. Journal of Elementology, 18(4): 577-588.
4. CH, S.R.S. and Prabhakar, N., 2018. Effect of nutrient deficiencies on growth of gerbera through solution culture. International Journal of Agricultural Science and Research, 7(3): 247-252.
5. Chandra, S., Bandopadhyay, R., Kumar, R., and Chandra, R. (2010). Acclimatization of tissue cultured plantlets: from laboratory to land. Biotechnol Lett, 32:1199–1205.
6. Darwesh, R, S, S. (2015). Morphology, physiology and anatomy in vitro affected acclimatization ex vitro date palm plantlets: A Review. International Journal of Chemical, Environmental & Biological Sciences, 3(2): 183- 190.
7. FAOSTAT: Fertilizers by Product. https://knoema.com/FAORFBFP/faostat-fertilizers-by-product. Published by source: 28 March 2019.
8. floranceflora.com/wp-content/themes/codewave/GerberaGrowingManual.pdf.
9. Forde, B.G. and Clarkson, D.T., 1999. Nitrate and ammonium nutrition of plants: physiological and molecular perspectives. In Advances in botanical research, 30: 1-90. Academic Press.
10. Hahn, E.J., Jeon, M.W., and Paek, K.Y. 1999, August. Culture method and growing medium affect growth and flower quality of several Gerbera cultivars. In International Symposium on Growing Media and Hydroponics 548 (385-392).
11. Kacperska, I., 1985. Effect of quantity of NPK fertilizer doses on the yield of gerbera cv. Peter. Experimental Work of the Institute of Pomology and Floriculture. Ser. B-Ornamental Plants.
12. Karimi Afshar, A., Delshad, M., and Bablar, M. 2009. Study on the possibility of substituting nutrient solution with variable EC instead of nutrient solution with fixed EC in tomato aquaculture. Journal of Iranian Horticultural Science, 40 (2): 37-44 (In Persian).
13. Kavanova, M., Lattanzi, F.A., Grimoldi, A.A. and Schnyder, H., 2006. Phosphorus deficiency decreases cell division and elongation in grass leaves. Plant Physiology, 141(2): 766-775.
14. Khalaj, M., Kiani, Sh., Khosh Goftar Manesh, A., and Amoo Aghaei A., R. 2016. The effect of different commercial nutrient solutions on yield and quality of two gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii L.) cut flower cultivars grown in soilless culture system. Journal of Greenhouse Crop Science and Technology, 7 (4): 135-147 (In Persian).
15. Khalaj, M.A., M. Amiri and S.S. Sindhu. 2011. Response of different growing media on the growth and yield of gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii L.) in hydroponic open system. Indian journal of horticulture, 68(4): 583-586.
16. Kumar, S. and Kanwar, J.K. 2006. Regeneration ability of petiole, leaf and petal explants in gerbera cut flower cultures in vitro. Folia Horticulturae, 18: 57-64.
17. Ludwig, F., Fernandes, D.M., Mota, P.R. and Boas, R.L.V., 2013. Electrical conductivity and pH of the substrate solution in gerbera cultivars under fertigation. Horticultura Brasileira, 31(3): 356-360.
18. Ludwig, F., Fernandes, D.M., Mota, P.R. and Villas Boas, R.L., 2008. Macronutrientes em cultivares de gerbera sob dois niveis de fertirrigacao. Horticultura Brasileira, 68-73.
19. Maloupa E. and D. Gerasopoulus. 1999. Quality production of four cut gerberas in a hydroponic system of four substrates. Acta Horticulturae, 486: 433-438.
20. Marschner, H. 1995. Mineral nutrition of higher plants. Second Edition, Academic Press Inc. San Diego, CA 92101.
21. Mollassini, H., Banayi, A., Abdul Baghi, M., and Seil Seper, M. 2007. Optimal usage of macro elements in hydroponic culture of gerbera. The first technical workshop to improve water use efficiency by cultivating greenhouse crops. Karaj, October 18, 2007 (In Persian).
22. Morgan, L. 2006. Hydroponic strawberry production. Publisher: Suntec Ltd, 118 p.
23. Mota, P.R.D.A., Fernandes, D.M. and Ludwig, F., 2016. Development and mineral nutrition of gerbera plants as a function of electrical conductivity. Ornamental Horticulture, 22(1): 37-42.
24. Nascimento, J.G. 2018. Malhas coloridas de sombreamento e solucoes nutritivas de fertirrigacao na cultura da gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii) em ambiente protegido (Doctoral dissertation, Universidade de Sao Paulo).
25. Palanisami, l. Kannan, D., Rishu, S., Bhatt, S.S. and Abhay, S., 2015. Fertigation studies on Gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii Bolus ex Hooker F.) for growth and yield under cover in southern hills (Shevaroy). International Journal of Tropical Agriculture, 33(1): 31-36.
26. Paradikovic, N., Mustapic-Karlic, J., Teklic, T., Cesar, V., Vinkovic, T., Lisjak, M., Spoljarević, M. and Iljkic, D., 2008. The Role of Light Regime and Substrate in Photosynthetic Pigments, free Proline content and Flower Quality of Gerbera jamesonii L. Poljoprivreda (Osijek), 14(2),17-22.
27. Resh, H.M. 1991. Hydroponic food production: A Definitive Guidebook of Soilless Food Growing Methods, 3rd ed. Woodbridge Press Publishing Co., ISBN 0-88007-171-0, California, 462 pages.
28. Savvas D., V. Karagianni, A. Kotsiras, V. Demopoulos, I. Karkamisi, and P. Pakou. 2003. Interactions between ammonium and pH of the nutrient solution supplied to gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii) grown in pumice. Plant and Soil. 254: 393-402.
29. Savvas, D. and Gizas, G., 2002. Response of hydroponically grown gerbera to nutrient solution recycling and different nutrient cation ratios. Scientia Horticulturae, 96(1): 267-280.
30. Schwarz, D., van Iersel, M.W., Ingram, K.T. and KlAring, H.P., 2001. Nutrient solution concentration effects on growth and photosynthesis of tomato grown hydroponically. In Plant nutrition (pp. 432-433). Springer, Dordrecht.
31. Sirin, U. 2011. Effects of different nutrient solution formulations on yield and cut flower quality of gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii L.) grown in soilless culture system. African Journal of Agricultural Research 6(21): 4910-4919.
32. Sonneveld, C., Baas, R., Nijssen, H.M.C. and De Hoog, J., 1999. Salt tolerance of flower crops grown in soilless culture. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 22(6): 1033-1048.
33. Van Eerd, L. L. and Zanddstra, J. W. 2007. Enhancing sugar beet storage quality. University of Guelph Ridgetown Campus. Agriculture and Agri -Food Canada.
34. Vidal, I., L. Longeri, and J. M. Hetier. 1999. Nitrogen uptake and chlorophyll meter measurements in spring wheat, Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosyst. 55: 1–6.
35. Zgallai, H., K. Steppe, and R. Lemeur. 2006. Effects of different levels of water stress on leaf water potential, stomatal resistance, protein and chlorophyll content and certain anti oxidative enzymes in Tomato plants. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology, 48(6): 679-685.
36. Zheng, Y., Graham, T., Richard, S. and Dixon, M., 2004. Potted gerbera production in a subirrigation system using low-concentration nutrient solutions. Hort Science, 39(6), 1283-1286.