تأثیر کودهای زیستی و سالیسیلیک اسید بر برخی صفات فیزیولوژیکی نشاء خربزه (Cucumis melo L.) در شرایط تنش شوری

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مجتمع آموزش عالی کشاورزی و دامپروری تربت جام

2 تربت جام

چکیده

شوری یکی از مهمترین تنش­های محیطی است که بطور نامطلوبی باعث کاهش عملکرد و رشد گیاهان می­گردد. در این راستا آزمایشی بصورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با سه تکرار در گلخانه مجتمع آموزش عالی کشاورزی و دامپروری تربت جام بر روی خربزه رقم خاتونی اجرا گردید. تیمارسالیسیلیک اسید در دو سطح صفر (SA0) و یک میلی مولار (SA1)، کودهای زیستی شامل ازتوباکتر (B1)، آزوسپریلیوم (B2)، مخلوط ازتوباکتر و آزوسپریلیوم (B3) و بدون تلقیح (B0) و تیمار شوری در پنج مقدار صفر (S0)، 50 (S1)، 100 (S2)، 150 (S3) و 200 (S4) میلی‌مولار (mM) کلرید سدیم تهیه شدند. نتایج نشان داد که شوری بطور معنی­داری باعث افزایش میزان تولید پرولین، قندهای محلول و کاهش میزان رنگدانه­های فتوسنتزی و محتوای رطوبت نسبی برگ گیاه خربزه گردید. بیشترین میزان تولید قندهای محلول در ترکیب شوری 200 میلی‌مولار با کاربرد توام باکتری­ها (S4 B3) به دست آمد، همچنین بالاترین میزان پرولین در ترکیب شوری 200 میلی‌مولار با کاربرد سالیسیلیک اسید یک میلی‌مولار و ترکیب ازتوباکتر و آزوسپریلیوم (S4 SA1 B3) به دست آمد. استفاده از کودهای زیستی بخصوص مخلوط باکتری­ها در ترکیب با یک میلی‌مولار سالیسیلیک اسید (SA1 B3) بطور معنی­داری باعث بهبود صفات مورد مطالعه گردید. با توجه به نتایج به دست آمده می­توان تلقیح بذور خربزه و محلولپاشی با سالیسیلیک اسید را جهت افزایش مقاومت و بهبود رشد و عملکرد خربزه در مناطق شور توصیه نمود.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Bio-fertilizer and Salicylic Acid on Some Physiological Traits of Melon under Salinity Stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • H. Nastari Nasrabadi 1
  • S.F. Saberali 2
1 Department of Horticulture Science and Engineering, High Educational Complex of Torbat-e Jam
2 Department of Horticulture Science and Engineering, High Educational Complex of Torbat-e Jam
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is one of the most important vegetables in Cucurbitaceae family and one of the most important economic crops in the Torbat-e Jam. Growth and yield of agricultural crops are affected by biotic and abiotic environmental stresses. Salinity stress can be one of the most important environmental factors limiting the yield of plants, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. It has been reported that by application of bio-fertilizers, root and shoot dry weight and nitrogen concentration in alfalfa increased under salt stress. Sarabi et al (44) in a study of different genotypes of melons under salinity stress reported that salinity stress increases soluble sugars and proline content and decreases photosynthetic pigments. Growth-promoting bacteria can help plants under stress conditions by stabilizing atmospheric nitrogen, increasing the accessibility of nutrients, and interfering by the production of plant hormones such as auxin, cytokinin, and gibberellins. Soliman et al. (49) also reported that growth-promoting bacteria increase the absorption of elements, especially nitrogen, in Acacia saligana. Basilio et al. (7) showed that growth-promoting bacteria increase plant height and yield of wheat. The use of salicylic acid to create plant reactions to environmental stresses has been suggested. Raghami et al (39) reported that salicylic acid improves vegetative indexes and photosynthetic pigments in eggplant under salt stress. It has been reported that salicylic acid treatment increased K in wheat under salt stress. Due to the expansion of saline soils as well as the reduction of fresh water resources, the purpose of this experiment is to better establish melon seedlings under adverse environmental conditions and to maintain and develop this valuable crop.
Materials and Methods: In order to study the effect of biological fertilizers and salicylic acid on physiological parameters and growth of Khatooni melon under salinity stress conditions, a factorial experiment was conducted based on completely randomized design with three replications in Torbat-e-Jam University. Salicylic acid treatment was selected at two levels, without (SA0) and one mM (SA1) salicylic acid. Bacteria treatments were including Azotobacter (B1), Azospirilium (B2), Azotobacter and Azospirilum (B3) and without inoculation (B0) and salinity treatments were prepared in five concentrations: control (S0), 50 (S1), 100 (S2), 150 (S3) and 200 (S4) mM of sodium chloride.
Results and Discussion: Interaction effects of salinity, salicylic acid and bacteria showed, proline content was increased by salinity stress. The highest of proline content was obtained by combination of 200 mM salinity, one mM of salicylic acid and Azetobacter + Azospirilum (S4 SA1 B3) and the minimum of it was recorded in contorol (S0 SA0 B0). Under salinity conditions, the accumulation of compatible solutions such as proline, glycine, betaine and other organic solutions in the plant occurs, which play an important role in protecting the plant against the harmful effects of stress. On the other hand, the increase in proline content by growth-promoting bacteria may be due to an increase in the absorption of nutrients, especially nitrogen, because proline has a nitrogenous structure.
Without salinity stress no significant difference observed between salicylic acid treatments on soluble sugars, but soluble sugars content were significantly increased by increasing salinity stress. The maximum and minimum of soluble sugars content were recorded in combination 200 mM salinity and one mM of salicylic acid (S4 SA1) and control (S0 SA0) respectively. Plants try to overcome salinity stress by producing organic compounds that are osmotically active such as soluble sugars.
It has been reported that the use of salicylic acid in eggplant and barley under salinity stress has increased the production of soluble sugars, which is consistent with the results of this study. In general, accumulation of proline and soluble sugars content might be due to increased synthesis and decreased degradation under stress conditions. According to the results, photosynthetic pigments and relative water content percentage (RWC %) were decreased under salinity stress. Simple effects of salicylic acid (SA1) and bacteria treatments especially combination of bacteria (B3) significantly improved Chlorophyll a, b, carotenoids and RWC. Sarabi et al. (43) reported that chlorophyll content, carotenoids and RWC were decreased in melon under salinity stress. Kheirizadeh Arough et al (29) reported that application of bio-fertilizers and nano zinc oxid increased content of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids in Triticale under salinity conditions.   
Conclusion: Based on the obtained results in this study, we can use Azotobacter and Azospirillum together for seed inoculation and spraying with salicylic acid for obtaining better growth and yield under salt stress.  

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Azospirillum
  • Azotobacter
  • Khatooni melon
  • Proline
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