انتخاب بستر کشت بهینه جهت پرورش گیاه ژربرا (Gerbera jamesonii) در سیستم کشت هیدروپونیک

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 جهاد دانشگاهی خراسان رضوی

2 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

با توجه به وقوع خشکسالی‌های پی‌در‌پی در کشور و لزوم مصرف بهینه آب، بکارگیری فناوری‌های نوین نظیر سیستم‌های کشت هیدروپونیک بسته به منظور افزایش کارایی مصرف کود و آب نقش موثری در کاهش هزینه‌های تولید و افزایش عملکرد در واحد سطح خواهد داشت که در این میان انتخاب بستر کشت مناسب می تواند بسیار تاثیرگذار باشد. لذا پژوهش حاضر با هدف انتخاب بستر کشت بهینه جهت پرورش گیاهچه‌های کشت بافتی ژربرا در سیستم کشت هیدروپونیک بسته انجام شد. گیاهچه‌ها پس از طی نمودن مرحله سازگاری در سیستم‌های مختلف کشت گردیدند: سیستم بستر کشت یکپارچه به صورت سیستم بسته حاوی بسترهای کشت مختلف (پرلیت شکری، ورمی‌کولیت، ورمی‌کولیت: پرلیت، کوکوپیت: پرلیت، پشم سنگ) و سیستم کشت هیدروپونیک NFT6 به صورت سیستم بسته انجام شد. آزمایش بصورت طرح کاملاً تصادفی با 6 تیمار (کوکوپیت: پرلیت، ورمی‌کولیت: پرلیت، پشم سنگ، ورمی‌کولیت، پرلیت شکری در بستر کشت یکپارچه به صورت سیستم بسته، سیستم کشت هیدروپونیک NFT به صورت سیستم بسته) در 6 تکرار انجام شد. طی یک دوره 6 ماهه پارامترهای مختلف رشدی مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که گیاهچه‌های کشت شده در بستر کشت ورمی‌کولیت و ورمی‌کولیت: پرلیت در مقایسه با سایر بسترهای کشت سریعتر وارد مرحله زایشی شدند و تعداد گل بیشتری را نیز تولید نمودند. گیاهچه‌های کشت شده در بستر کشت پشم سنگ عملکرد مطلوبی را از خود نشان ندادند که احتمالاً تنش خشکی وارده بر گیاهان دلیل این امر می­تواند باشد. همچنین از آنجا که گیاه ژربرا دارای ریشه‌های حجیمی می‌باشد، ریشه‌های این گیاه در سیستم NFT نتوانستند بخوبی توسعه پیدا کنند، لذا کاربرد سیستم  NFTنیز جهت پرورش گیاه ژربرا مناسب نمی‌باشد. بهترین عملکرد نمونه‌های گیاهی در بستر کشت ورمی‌کولیت حاصل شد ولی با توجه به عدم اختلاف معنی‌دار این بستر کشت با بستر کشت ورمی‌کولیت: پرلیت، به منظور کاهش هزینه‌های تولید، کاربرد بستر کشت ورمی‌کولیت: پرلیت در سیستم بسته جهت پرورش گیاه ژربرا توصیه می‌گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Selection of Optimal Cultivation Media for Gerbera (Gerbera Jamesonii) Growth in the Hydroponic Culture System

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. Kharrazi 1
  • A. Sharifi 1
  • S. Nejatizadeh 2
  • A. Khadem 1
  • M. Moradian 1
1 Khorasan Razavi Branch of Academic Center of Education, Culture and Research
2 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Considering the occurrence of successive droughts in our country and the necessity of optimal water consumption, the use of modern technologies such as closed systems to increase the efficiency of fertilizer and water use will have an effective role in reducing production costs and increasing yield. The Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) system is one of the hydroponic culture systems in which the nutrient solution is circulated continuously. In this system, a thin layer of nutrient solution will be available to the plant roots, which has a significant effect on reducing fertilizer and water consumption.
Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted to select an optimal system for cultivation of Gerbera plantlets. Plantlets were cultivated in different systems after the acclimation stage: Integrated bedding system as a closed system containing different culture media (Perlite, vermiculite, vermiculite: perlite, cocopeat: perlite and rock wool) and NFT hydroponic system as a closed system. For fertilization, the following fertilizer combination (mM) was used: K2SO4 (0.22), KNO3 (3.62), KH2PO4 (0.71), NH4H2PO4 (0.35), NH4NO3 (0.53), Ca (NO3)2,4H2O (1.48), MgSO4, 7H2O (0.4), MnCl2, 4H2O (0.0049), H3BO3 (0.020), ZnSO4 (0.0061), CuSO4, 5H2O (0.00048), NaMoO4, 2H2O (0.00058), FeSO4, 7H2O (0.0348), Na2EDTA (0.0384). The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with six treatments in six replicates. During six months, the growth parameters of the plants including number of leaves, petiole length, fresh and dry shoot weight, leaf chlorosis percentage, leaf necrosis percentage, flower number, flower diameter, flowering stem height, number of days to flowering, end diameter of the stalk and the middle diameter of the stalk were evaluated. Data preparation was done in Excel and data analysis was performed using the Jump 8 software. Mean comparison between treatments was performed with LSD test at 5% probability level and charts were drawn using the Excel program.
Results and Discussion: The results showed that there was a significant difference between treatments for the number of leaves (p <0.01). Seedlings cultivated in the vermiculite culture medium produced the highest number of leaves; however, there was no significant difference between seedlings cultured in vermiculite and vermiculite: perlite media. The lowest number of produced leaves was observed in plantlets grown in the NFT system. Also, the seedlings grown in the rock wool medium had no significant difference with the NFT system. In this regard, the drought stress on plants and the consequent poor growth of plantlets reduced the number of produced leaves. The percentage of necrotic leaves in the NFT system was more than twice the vermiculite culture medium. There was no significant difference between cocopeat: perlite, perlite, rock wool, and NFT systems. Also, the lowest amount of necrotic leaves was found in the vermiculite culture medium, which did not have a significant difference with vermiculite: perlite culture medium. Low levels of leaf necrosis in these treatments indicate the optimal absorption of nutrients and the proper growth of plantlets in these culture media. The results showed that plantlets cultivated in the vermiculite and vermiculite: perlite flowered more quickly than other culture media and also produced more flowers. Plantlets grown in the rock wool medium did not show the desirable performance, which is due to drought stress. Besides, the use of cocopeat in the culture medium did not have a beneficial effect on plants. Measuring the initial electrical conductivity in the cocopeat culture medium also indicates a high EC concentration in this culture medium, which could affect the growth parameters of the plant and lead to poor vegetative growth of plantlets. Since Gerbera plant has bulky roots, the roots of this plant cannot be developed well in the NFT system, so the use of the NFT system is not suitable for Gerbera cultivation. The best performance of plant samples was obtained from vermiculite culture media, but since there were no significant differences between vermiculite and vermiculite: perlite, so to reduce production costs, the use of vermiculite: perlite culture medium in the closed system is recommended for the cultivation of Gerbera plant.
Conclusion: Since Gerbera plant has bulky roots, the roots of this plant cannot be developed well in the NFT system, so the use of the NFT system is not suitable for Gerbera cultivation. The best performance of plant samples was obtained from vermiculite culture media, but since there were no significant differences between vermiculite and vermiculite: perlite, so to reduce production costs, the use of vermiculite: perlite culture medium in the closed system is recommended for the cultivation of Gerbera plant.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • NFT system
  • Closed irrigation system
  • Flower diameter
  • Integrated planting bed
1. Al-Tawaha, A.M., Al-Karaki Gh., Al Tawaha A.R.M., and Massadeh A. 2018. Effect of water flow rate on quantity and quality of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in nutrient fi lm technique (NFT) under hydroponics conditions. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science 24(05):793-800.
2. Asker, H.M., 2015. Hydroponic technology for lily flowers and bulbs production using rainwater and some common nutrient solutions. African Journal of Biotechnology, 14(29): 2307-2313.
3. Bres, W., Kozlowska, A. and Walczak, T., 2013. Effect of nutrient solution concentration on yield and quality of gerbera grown in perlite. Journal of Elementology, 18(4): 577-588.
4. Challinor, D.P., Collison, P. 2014. Review of hydroponic flower production and future opportunities for the UK industry. Project code: PO018. May Barn Consultancy LTD.
5. Christie, E., 2014. Water and Nutrient Reuse within Closed Hydroponic Systems. MSc Thesis, Washington State University.
6. De Pascale, S. and Paradiso, R., 1999, August. Water and nutrient uptake of roses growing in two inert media. In International Symposium on Growing Media and Hydroponics, 548: 631-640.
7. Fakhri M., Maloupa E. and Gerasopoulos D. 1995. Effect of substrate and frequency of irrigation in yield and quality of three gerbera jamesonii cultivars, Acta Hort. (ISHS), 408: 41-45.
8. Ferrante, A., Malorgio, F., Pardossi, A., Serra, G. and Tognoni, F., 2000. Growth, flower production and mineral nutrition in gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii H. Bolus) plants grown in substrate culture with and without nutrient solution recycling. Advances in horticultural science, 14(3): 99-106.
9. Hahn, E.J., Jeon, M.W., and Paek, K.Y. 1999, August. Culture method and growing medium affect growth and flower quality of several Gerbera cultivars. In International Symposium on Growing Media and Hydroponics 548: 385-392.
10. Incemehmetoglu, A., Yildiz, F., Ozen, C. 2012. Investigation the effect of different support medium on product with nutrient film technique in hydroponic plant growth. MSc Thesis, Biotechnology Department, Middle East Technical University.
11. Jeannequin, B. and Fabre, R., 1995. Techniques for the recycling or the reduction of waste nutrient solution in soilless cultivation. Plasticulture.
12. Jones, J.B., 2005. The plant root: its roles and functions. Hydroponics: A Practical Guide for the Soilles Grower. CRS PRESS. USA. pp, 19-28.
13. Jung, V., Olsson, E., Asp, H., Jensen, P., Caspersen, S., Alsanius, B., 2001. Plant response of hydroponically grown tomato to phenolic compounds. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Growing Media and Hydroponics, September 8-14, Alnarp, Sweden, Abstracts, C13.
14. Khalaj, M.A., Amiri, M., and Azimi, M.H. 2014. Effect of Different culture media on the nutrient absorption, Growth Characteristics, and Yield of gerbera in hydroponic culture. Journal of Horticulture Science, 27(4): 470-479.
15. Khater, E.S.G. and Ali, S.A., 2015. Effect of flow rate and length of gully on lettuce plants in aquaponic and hydroponic systems. Journal of Aquaculture Research & Development, 6(3), p.1.
16. Maloupa E.I., Mitsios P.F. Martinez S.and Poulou B. 1993. Study of substrates used in Gerbera culture in plastic greenhouse, Acta Hort. (ISHS), 323: 139-144.
17. Marschner H. 2012. Mineral nutrition of higher plants, 3rd edn. Academic, London, UK.
18. Olympios, C.M., 1999. Overview of soilless culture: advantages, constraints and perspectives for its use in Mediterranean countries. Cahiers Options Mediterraneennes, 31(307-324), p.2.
19. Pardossi, A., Carmassi, G., Diara, C., Incrocci, L., Maggini, R. and Massa, D., 2011. Fertigation and substrate management in closed soilless culture. Pisa: University of Pisa.
20. Puerta, A.R., Sato, S., Shinohara, Y. and Maruo, T., 2007. A modified nutrient film technique system offers a more uniform nutrient supply to plants. HortTechnology, 17(2), pp.227-233.
21. Raviv, M., Krasnovsky, A., Medina, S. and Reuveni, R., 1998. Assessment of various control strategies for recirculation of greenhouse effluents under semi-arid conditions. The Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology, 73(4): 485-491.
22. Savvas, D. and Gizas, G., 2002. Response of hydroponically grown gerbera to nutrient solution recycling and different nutrient cation ratios. Scientia Horticulturae, 96(1-4): 267-280.
23. Schwartz, M. 1995. Soilless culture management. 1st ED. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg.
24. Smith, D.L. 1988. Rock wool in horticulture. 2nd ED. Grower books, London.
25. Van Os, E.A., 1994. Engineering and environmental aspects of soilless growing systems. Hydroponics and Transplant Production 396: 25-32.
26. Zekki, H., Gauthier, L. and Gosselin, A., 1996. Growth, productivity, and mineral composition of hydroponically cultivated greenhouse tomatoes, with or without nutrient solution recycling. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 121(6): 1082-1088.