بررسی اثرات پیرودکسین، تیامین و اسید فولیک بر ویژگی‌های رشدی، زایشی و بیوشیمیایی گوجه‌فرنگی (.Solanum lycopersicum L) رقم ’دلفوس‘

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسنده

گروه کشاورزی، دانشکده فنی و مهندسی، دانشگاه ولایت، ایرانشهر، ایران

چکیده

ویتامین‌ها از مواد طبیعی ساخته شده­اند و به‌منظور رشد، عملکرد و بهبود سطح تغذیه گیاهان مناسب هستند. هدف از این مطالعه، بررسی اثرات سطوح مختلف پیرودکسین (50، 100 و 150 میلی گرم بر لیتر)، تیامین (50، 100 و 150 میلی‌گرم بر لیتر)، اسید فولیک (50، 100 و 150 میلی‌گرم بر لیتر)، و ترکیب این ویتامین‌ها بر روی رشد، عملکرد و ویژگی‌های شیمیایی گیاه گوجه فرنگی . این پژوهش در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در گلخانه دانشگاه ولایت ایرانشهر طی سال‌های 1398 تا 1399 اجرا شد. نتایج نشان دادند که تمامی غلظت‌های پیرودکسین، تیامین و اسید فولیک به کار برده شده سبب افزایش پارامترهای رشدی نسبت به شاهد شدند، و بیشترین ارتفاع گیاه (271 سانتی‌متر)، قطر ساقه (7 سانتی‌متر)، تعداد برگ (31 عدد)، وزن تر (502 گرم) و خشک گیاه (66/341 گرم) در غلظت 100 میلی گرم بر لیتر پیرودکسین+ 100 میلی گرم بر لیتر تیامین+ 100 میلی گرم بر لیتر اسید فولیک ایجاد شد. روابط متقابل سطوح ویتامین‌های B در سطوح کم، متوسط و زیاد اثر معنی‌داری بر پارامترهای زایشی گیاه گوجه فرنگی داشت، به‌طوری‌که بیشترین تعداد گل (33/41)، تعداد میوه (55/29)، تعداد خوشه (77/9)، قطر میوه (44/22 میلی‌متر)، وزن تر میوه (158 گرم)، وزن خشک میوه (81/10 گرم) و عملکرد (9667/5688 گرم در بوته) در غلظت 100 میلی‌گرم بر لیتر پیرودکسین، 100 میلی‌گرم بر لیتر تیامین و 100 میلی‌گرم بر لیتر اسید فولیک مشاهده شد. هم­چنین، تمامی غلظت‌های به کار برده شده پیرودکسین، تیامین و اسید فولیک سبب افزایش پارامترهای بیوشیمیایی نسبت به شاهد شدند. بیشترین میزان pH (78/4)، اسیدیته (28/0 درصد)، مواد جامد محلول (93/3 درصد)، لیکوپن (64/2 میلی­گرم در 100 گرم وزن تر)، محتوای فنول کل (66/66 میلی­گرم در 100 گرم وزن تر)، ویتامین ث (36/13 میلی گرم بر 100 گرم وزن تر)، کلروفیل a (98/1 میلی­گرم بر گرم وزن تر)، کلروفیل b (98/0 میلی­گرم بر گرم وزن تر) و کارتنوئید (33/3 میلی گرم بر گرم وزن تر) با کاربرد ترکیب 100 میلی­گرم بر لیتر پیرودکسین، 100 میلی­گرم بر لیتر تیامین و 100 میلی­گرم بر لیتر اسید فولیک به‌دست آمد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Pyridoxine, Thiamine and Folic acid on Growth, Reproductive and Biochemical Characteristics of Delphus Tomato

نویسنده [English]

  • M. Zamanipour
Department of Agriculture, Faculty of Technical and Engineering, Velayat University, Iranshahr, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is a perennial plant, which is rich in antioxidant compounds, lycopene, polyphenols and vitamin C. Iran, with production of 5.24 million tons, is ranked sixth in the world in tomato production. According to the latest FAO reports in 2019, the total area under tomato cultivation was 121203 hectares, with an average yield of 43.30 tons per hectare, and annual production of 5248904 tons. Vitamins are made from natural ingredients and are suitable for the growth, function and improvement of plant nutrition. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different levels of pyridoxine (50, 100 and 150 mgL-1), thiamine (50, 100 and 150 mgL-1) and folic acid (50, 100 and 150 mgL-1) and the combination of these vitamins on the plant growth, yield and chemical properties of tomatoes.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted as randomized complete block design with three replications in the greenhouse of Iranshahr University during the years 2019 to 2020. The tomato cultivar was Delphus, the seedling of which was purchased from Pakan Bazr Isfahan Company. In August, with the beginning of the tomato planting period in the greenhouse, seedlings were planted and the harvest lasted until December. Seedlings were planted in rows of 75 cm wide and 40 cm apart. Irrigation was performed in the greenhouse with a drip system. The first irrigation was carried out immediately after planting and the second and third irrigations were carried out one day later for one hour and the subsequent irrigations were carried out in proportion to the growth of seedlings, every other day, every four days. At the 7-8 leaf stage, the plants were guided vertically on the thread. The greenhouse temperature was 25 to 32 °C during the experiment and 18 to 24 °C at night and the relative humidity was about 50%.
Results and Discussion: The results showed that all used concentrations of pyridoxine, thiamine and folic acid increased the growth parameters compared to the control, so that the highest plant height (271 cm), stem diameter (7 cm), number of leaves (31) fresh weight (502 g) and dry weight (341.66 g) were produced at a concentration of 100 mgL-1 pyridoxine + 100 mgL-1 thiamine + 100 mgL-1 folic acid. Interaction of B vitamin levels at low, medium and high levels had a significant effect on the reproductive parameters of tomato plants, so that the highest number of flowers (41.33), number of fruits (29.55), number of clusters (9.77), fruit diameter (22.44 mm), fruit fresh weight (158 g) and fruit dry weight (10.81 g) and yield (5688.9667 g/plant) at a concentration of 100 mgL-1 pyridoxine, 100 mgL-1 thiamine and 100 mgL-1 was observed per liter of folic acid. Increasing of yield can be due to increased nutrient uptake and assimilation, and increased growth due to the presence of vitamins. Similar results by El-Gharmany et al. (2005) stated that foliar application of vitamins (B1, B6 and B12) in appropriate concentrations in cowpea significantly increased the number of pods per plant and total yield compared to the control. Shabaly and El-Ramady (2014) and Shabana et al. (2015) found that some natural ingredients have increased yield of garlic and tomatoes. Also, all concentrations of pyridoxine, thiamine and folic acid used increased biochemical parameters compared to the control. Maximum pH (4.78), acidity (0.28%), soluble solids (3.93%), lycopene (2.64 mg/100 g fresh weight), total phenol content (66.66 mg/100 g fresh weight, vitamin C (13.36 mg/100 g fresh weight), chlorophyll a (1.98 mg/g fresh weight), chlorophyll b (0.98 mg /g fresh weight) and carotenoids (3.33 mg/g fresh weight) were obtained by using a combination of 100 mgL-1 pyridoxine, 100 mgL-1 thiamine and 100 mgL-1 folic acid. Foliar application of vitamin treatments may play an important role in physiological and metabolic processes that affect the process of photosynthetic metabolism and lead to an increase in soluble solids and minerals. The interaction of vitamins improves the action of biochemicals on amino acid metabolism and nucleic acid synthesis. However, Abdel-Halim (1995) reported that foliar application of some vitamins improved leaf growth, increased chlorophyll, chemicals, and internal hormones in tomatoes during the winter. El-Ghamriny (2005) reported that foliar application of B vitamins (B1, B6 and B12) increased leaf chlorophyll in cowpea compared to the control, and Burguieres et al. (2007) found that folic acid at a concentration of 50 mgL-1 increased minerals in peas. Hendawy and Ezz El-Dinn (2010) reported that vitamin B complex as a coenzyme in enzymatic reactions such as carbohydrates, fatty acids and proteins involved in photosynthesis and respiration. In addition, Abd El-Hakim (2006) reported that some antioxidants improve biochemical properties in some beans.
Conclusion: The results showed that the use of pyridoxine, thiamine and folic acid vitamins alone or in combination with each other improved the growth, reproductive and biochemical characteristics of Delphi greenhouse tomatoes. The highest growth rate, yield and biochemical properties were obtained at 100 mgL-1 pyridoxine + 100 mgL-1 thiamine + 100 mgL-1 folic acid.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • growth
  • Nutrition
  • Tomato
  • yield
  • Vitamins
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