ارزیابی خصوصیات فنولوژیک، مورفولوژیک و پومولوژیک برخی از ارقام و ژنوتیپ‌های شلیل در شرایط اقلیمی استان خراسان رضوی

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه کشاورزی،دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی ، بجنورد، ایران

2 گروه کشاورزی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ازاد اسلامی، بجنورد، ایران

3 گروه کشاورزی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی ، بجنورد، ایران

چکیده

یکـی از مشـکلات عمده پرورش‌دهندگان شلیل عـدم دسترسی به ارقام جدید و پر محصول و استفاده از ارقام ناشناخته است که میزان تولید، بازارپسندی و کیفیت محصول آن‌ها کم مـی‌باشـد. گروه‌بندی ارقام و ژنوتیپ‌های مختلف براســاس خصوصــیات مورفولوژیــک و پومولوژیک اطلاعــات مفیدی در مورد روابط بین ارقام و ژنوتیپ‌ها برای اصلاح‌گـران و مـدیران بانک‌هـای ژن گیـاهی فـراهم مـی‌نمایـد این پژوهش به‌منظور مقایسه، گروه‌بندی و انتخاب ژنوتیپ‌ها و ارقام برتر از نظر صفات رشدی، مورفولوژیک و پومولوژیک 10 ژنوتیپ و رقم شلیل (فلامینو، نکتارد، هنری، شانیاریا، رویزیانا، تاج شماره-1 و -2، شلیل شماره-1، آندروس و سان‌گلد به‌عنوان شاهد) به‌صورت آزمایش بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در سال‌های 98-1396 در مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی اجرا شد. ارقام و ژنوتیپ‌های مورد بررسی از نظر صفات‌‌ فنولوژیک، مورفولوژیک، پومولوژیک و بیوشیمیایی تفاوت معنی-داری نشان دادند. زودگل‌ترین ارقام شلیل، فلامینو، نکتارد و سان‌گلد (هفته چهارم اسفند) و هنری و تاج شماره-2 دیرگل‌ترین (هفته اول فروردین) بودند. نتایج تست پانل نشان داد که فلامینو، هنری و شانیاریا دارای بالاترین رتبه از نظر میانگین حسی صفات رنگ، بافت، بو و طعم بودند. فلامینو دارای بیشترین سبزینگی برگ (91/36) بود. هنری با 6/44 کیلوگرم عملکرد، 55/3 کیلوگرم بر سانتی‌متر مربع سفتی بافت میوه و 39/16 درصد مواد جامد محلول از نظر صفات بیوشیمیایی، برتری آماری نشان داد. فلامینو و شلیل-1 به‌ترتیب با میانگین 76/138 و 51/129 گرم، بیشترین وزن میوه را داشتند که در مقایسه با شاهد افزایش 97/32 و 19/28 درصدی نشان دادند. در مجموع فلامینو، نکتارد و هنری به دلیل داشتن صفات پومولوژیک و فنولوژیک بالا به‌عنوان ارقام برتر شلیل برای کشت در شرایط اقلیمی استان خراسان رضوی قابل توصیه می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Phenological, Morphological, and Pummological Characteristics of Some Nectarine Cultivars and Genotypes under Khorasan Razavi Province Climatic Conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • ameneh ghahremani 1
  • ebrahim ganji moghadam 2
  • ali marjani 3
1 Department of Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Bojnourd, Iran
2 Department of Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Bojnourd, Iran
3 Department of Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Bojnourd, Iran
چکیده [English]

One of the main problems of Shalil breeders is the lack of access to new and high-yielding cultivars and the use of unknown cultivars, whose production, marketability and product quality are low. Grouping of different cultivars and genotypes based on morphological and pummological characteristics provides useful information about the relationships between cultivars and genotypes for breeders and managers of plant gene banks. And selection of superior genotypes and cultivars in terms of growth, morphological and pumological traits of 10 genotypes and cultivars of nectarine (Flamino, Nectard, Henry, Shanaria, Royziana, crown No. -1 and -2, Nectar -1, Andros and Sangold As a control) was performed as a randomized complete block test with three replications in the years 1396-98 in the Agricultural Research and Training Center and Natural Resources of Khorasan Razavi. The studied cultivars and genotypes showed significant differences in terms of phenological, morphological, pomological and biochemical traits. The earliest cultivars were nectarine, flamino, nectarine and sunflower (fourth week of March) and Henry and crown number 2 were the later (first week of April). The panel test results showed that Flamino, Henry and Chaniaria had the highest rank in terms of average sensory traits of color, texture, smell and taste. Flamino had the highest leaf greenness (36.91). Henry showed statistical superiority in terms of biochemical traits with 44.6 kg yield, 3.55 kg / cm2 fruit tissue firmness and 16.39% soluble solids. Flamino and nectarine-1, with an average of 138.76 and 129.51 g, respectively, had the highest fruit weight, which showed an increase of 32.97 and 28.19% compared to the control. In general, flamino, nectar and art can be recommended for cultivation in climatic conditions of Khorasan Razavi province due to their high pomological and phenological traits.This study was conducted to compare, group, and select the best genotypes in terms of growth, morphological, and pomological traits from 10 genotypes and cultivars of nectarine (Flamino, Nectared, Henri, Shaniaria, Royziana, Taj No.-1 and -2, Shalil No.-1, Andrros, and Sangold as a control) were performed as a randomized complete block experiment with three replications during the two cropping years of 2017-19 in the Agricultural Research and Training Center of Khorasan Razavi climatic conditions. The traits measured in the present study are flowering start time, flowering period, harvest time, tree height, and diameter, yield, length, width, and weight of fruit and length, width, and weight of the stone, acidity, titratable acidity, soluble solids, fruit tissue firmness, and flavor index.Results indicated that the cultivars and genotypes showed significant differences in terms of phenological traits (flowering start time, flowering period, and harvest time), morphological (tree height, trunk diameter), pomological (yield, length, width, and weight of fruit and length, width, and weight of stone) and quality (acidity, titratable acidity, soluble solids, fruit tissue firmness, and flavor index). The earliest flowering genotypes were Nectared, Flamino, and Sungold, while Henri and Taj No.-1 were the latest flowering. The Henri, which had the most extended flowering period, showed a later harvest time. The panel test results showed that Flamino, Henri, and Shaniaria had the highest rank in terms of mean sensory traits of color, texture, smell, and taste. While the Royziana had the lowest average. Flamino had the highest chlorophyll index (36.91), which was not significantly different from the Nectared, Henri, Shaniaria, Taj No. -1 and -2. Henri genotype with 44.6 kg of yield, 3.55 kg/cm2 of fruit tissue firmness, and 16.39% of soluble solids showed statistical superiority in quality traits. Flamino and Shahlil-1, with an average of 138.76 and 129.51 g, respectively, had the highest fruit weight, which showed an increase of 32.97 and 28.19% compared to the control. In the second year, due to more growth and increasing the age of the tree naturally, increased tree height (22.41%), trunk diameter (79.8%), crown of the tree (73.3%), chlorophyll index (5.16%), fruit weight (35.06%) and fruit flavor index (28.46%) were observed compared to the first year. Tree yield was positively and significantly correlated with tree height, leaf length, and fruit tissue firmness and negatively and significantly correlated with fruit length, fruit width, and stone length. Tree height, crown of the tree, fruit width, stone weight, and fruit weight entered the regression model, which finally explained 55.91% of the tree yield changes.: In general, Flamino, Nectared, and Henri are recommended for cultivation in the Khorasan Razavi province's climatic conditions due to their high pomological and phenological traits as superior nectarine genotypes.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Panel test
  • Flowering period
  • Chlorophyll index
  • Fruit flavor index

مقالات آماده انتشار، پذیرفته شده
انتشار آنلاین از تاریخ 27 اردیبهشت 1400
  • تاریخ دریافت: 20 دی 1399
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 25 اردیبهشت 1400
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 27 اردیبهشت 1400