بررسی اثر جیبرلیک‌اسید و طیف‌های مختلف نور LED بر کیفیت نشاء Cyclamen persicum Mill.

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی


1 گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهرکرد

2 گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشگاه شهرکرد، شهرکرد، ایران


به­منظور بررسی تاثیر طیف­های نور LED و جیبرلیک­اسید (GA3) بر کیفیت نشاء سیکلمن (Cyclamen persicum) آزمایشی به­صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی انجام شد. گیاهان از مرحله جوانه­زنی به­مدت چهار ماه تحت تاثیر دو سطح از طیف­های نوری LED شامل نسبت­های 70: 20: 10 و 40: 40: 20 درصد با رنگ­های سفید: قرمز: آبی با شدت یکسان 100 میکرو­مول بر متر­مربع بر ثانیه، در محفظه­ای طراحی شده (که عوامل محیطی تا حد امکان در آن تحت کنترل بود) قرار گرفتند و GA3 در چهار غلظت صفر، 20، 40 و 60 میلی­گرم بر­لیتر و در سه نوبت روی برگ­ها افشانش شد. بر اساس نتایج، بیشترین تعداد برگ و سطح برگ به­ترتیب در تیمار 40: 40: 20 و 70: 20: 10 مشاهده شد. طول ریشه در غلظت 60 میلی­گرم بر لیتر GA3 افزایش یافت و نزدیکترین تاریخ گلدهی گیاه از برهمکنش تیمار 70: 20: 10 و غلظت صفر میلی­گرم بر لیتر GA3 بدست آمد. بیشترین مقدار کلروفیل b و قند محلول برگ از برهمکنش تیمار 40: 40: 20 و غلظت صفر میلی­گرم بر­لیتر GA3 مشاهده شد. شاخص‌های Ψ-0 (حداکثر عملکرد کوانتومی فتوشیمیایی اولیه) و φ-E0 (عملکرد کوانتومی انتقال الکترون) در غلظت صفر میلی­گرم بر لیتر GA3 و VJ (فلورسنس متغیر نسبی) در غلظت 40 میلی­گرم بر­لیتر GA3 افزایش یافت. بالاترین میزان ABS/RC (تراکم مرکز واکنش به­ازاء مقدار انرژی نورانی جذب شده) از برهمکنش تیمار 40: 40: 20 و غلظت 60 میلی­گرم بر لیتر GA3 بدست آمد. نتایج این تحقیق نشان می­دهد کاربرد تجاری لامپ­های LED برای پرورش نشاء سیکلمن برای دستیابی به­نتایج مشابه با این پژوهش باید با در نظر گرفتن سایر هزینه­ها با احتیاط انجام شود.



عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Gibberellic Acid and Different Spectra of LED Lights on Quality of Cyclamen persicum Mill. Seedlings

نویسندگان [English]

  • B. Gholamian Dehkordi 1
  • S. Reezi 2
  • M. Ghasemi Ghehsareh 1
1 Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord University
2 Department of Horticulture, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran
چکیده [English]

 Cyclamen persicum is a genus of Primulaceae family and is a winter pot plant that can be marketed within seven months under proper growing conditions. In recent years, the rapid development of lighting technology has increased the use of several types of LED lamps because of their efficient roles to generate visible light via a lot of wavelengths. Application of some plant growth regulators (PGRs) like GA3 is well-known as an environment-friendly growth regulatorwhich is extensively employed to increase the productivity and and changing the phenotypic features of several ornamental plants.
Materials and Methods
 In this experiment, cyclamen large red flower seeds, i.e. the Halios series, were planted in early May, and then kept in a dark and cool greenhouse for one month. After germination and the emergence of cotyledonary leaves, transplants exposed to two levels of the LED light spectrum for 4 months consisting of the ratios of 70:20:10 and 40:40:20 via white:red and blue with the same intensity 100 µmol/m2/s subjected to a 16-hour photoperiodic conditions. At the end of the third month of growth, GA3 was sprayed on the leaves at four concentrations of 0, 20, 40, and 60 mg/l three times around the experiment. NPK fertilizer with a ratio of 10-52-10 was then applied once a week and a ratio of 20-19-19 fertilizer until the roots were fully established. Afterwards, the leaf area was measured using Digimizer version 5.4.3 software, in which the flowering date was calculated from of transferring time the plants of each treatment under light. In the following, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents were measured using Lichtenthaler and Wellburn method. Leaf soluble sugar was measured using the Oregon method and the chlorophyll fluorescence indices were measured using FluorPen FP 100.
Results and Discussion
 According to the results, the highest leaf number of cyclamen seedlings in the treatment of 40:40:20 was equal to seven, whereas the highest leaf area (9.8 cm2) observed under the light treatment of 70:20:10. the blue LED light can affects on differentiation of leaf mesophilic cells as well as the development of intercellular spaces, and the red light affects the production of a plant hormone so-called Meta-Topolin, which stimulates cell division and leaf expansion. Here, it should be noted that adding white LED light to the composition spectrum increases both growth and photosynthesis because of its deeper penetration into the plant canopy. The maximum root length was achieved at a concentration of 60 mg/l GA3 equal to 5.1 cm. It should be mentioned that GA3 is effective to increase the growth of cells in different parts of the plant (such as roots) by stimulating mitotic division. The closest date to cyclamen flowering time (90 days) was obtained in 70:20:10 treatment. . The highest amount of chlorophyll b was achieved from the interaction of light treatment 40:40:20 and concentration of 0 mg/l GA3 equal to 0.35 mg/g. Results showed that the red light is needed for the photosynthesis, whereas the blue light is needed for chlorophyll and chloroplast synthesis, stomatal opening, and photomorphogenesis. The highest amount of leaf soluble sugar of cyclamen seedlings was achieved from the interaction of 40:40:20 and the concentration of 0 mg/l GA3 equal to 0.53 mg/ml. Carbohydrates mostly accumulate in the leaves under blue light, whereas the red light can cause them to accumulate by preventing the transferring the photosynthetic products from the leaves. Among chlorophyll fluorescence indices, the highest VJ index was obtained from 40 mg/l GA3 concentration equal to 0.51. VJ was measured from the first light pulse, in which its increase via increasing the performance of the photosynthetic apparatus reveal the ability of seedlings to make better use of environmental conditions applied to produce more carbohydrates as well as to enhance the growth quality. The highest values of φ-E0 and Ψ-0 indices in GA3 0 treatment were 0.44 and 0.54, respectively, indicating that increasing them improves the performance index of the photosynthetic apparatus. The external GA3 increases only the amount of chlorophyll and soluble protein content in the leaves of some plants, and interferes with the greater light reflection, chlorophyll fluorescence and eventually the performance of photosystem II. In this regard, the highest amount of ABS/RC index was observed in the interaction of 40:40:20 and concentration of 60 mg/l GA3 equal to 2.27, which is equal to increasing the performance index of photosynthetic device. During the plant growth, the use of monochromatic LED light compared to the full visible spectrum or red + blue lights would lead to creating some defects in the electron transport chain.
 An increase in PI (Plant Photosynthetic Performance Index) means that the plant is operating under conditions of normal photosynthesis. In general, an increase in this index indicates the ability of seedlings or mature plants to make better use of environmental conditions to produce more carbohydrates and improve growth quality. The relationship between increasing the amount of chlorophyll b, leaf soluble sugar and ABS / RC index all in 40:40: 20 treatment while confirming this correlation, shows that since most of the light absorption by chlorophyll is in the red and blue light spectrum. 40: 40: 20 is better than 70: 20: 10 with more red and blue light. The effect of light of any quality or GA3 at any concentration on the qualitative traits of seedling or adult plant growth is directly related to plant genotype and no specific effects can be determined for them. The use of complementary LED light may in some respects lead to a further increase in the quality of Cyclamen seedlings, but it is only reasonable to use them if it compensates for other production costs, including electricity consumption. Finally, chlorophyll fluorescence indices are also independent of each other in terms of their effect on the performance of the photosynthetic apparatus.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Floweing time
  • Leaf area
  • Root length
  • Chlophyll flourescence
  • Soluble sugar
  1. Arteca R.A. 2014. Physiological foundations of the use of plant growth materials. (Translated by Assadollah Hejazi and Mohammad Kafashi Sedghi). Tehran. University of Tehran Press 3:341. (In Persian)
  2. Abidi F., Girault T., Douillet O., Guillemain G., Sintes G., Laffaire M., Ben H., Ahmed S., Smiti S., Huche L., and Leduc N. 2012. Blue light effects on rose photosynthesis and photomorphogenesis. Plant Biology 67-74. DOI: 1111/j.1438-8677.2012.00603.x.
  3. Azad M.O.K.I.J., Chun J.H., Jeong S.T., Kwon and Hwang J.M. 2011. Response of the growth characteristics and phytochemical contents of pepper (Capsicum annuum) seedlings with supplemental LED light in glass house. Bio-Environment Control 20(3): 182-188.
  4. Avarseji Z., Rashed Mohassel M., Nezami A., Abbaspoor M., and Nasiri Mahallati M. 2015. Investigation of the Effects of Clodinafop and Dicamba+2, 4-D on Kautskey Curve and Chlorophyll Fluorescence. Journal of Plant Protection 29(1): 32-42. (In Persian). DOI: 10.22067/jpp.v29i1.48540.
  5. Abbaspour H., and Rezaei H. 2015. Effects of gibberellic acid on Hill reaction, photosynthetic Pigment and phenolic compounds in Moldavian dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica) in different drought stress levels. Journal of Plant Research 27(5): 893-903. (In Persian)
  6. Aliniaeifard S., Seifi M., Arab M., Mehrjerdi M.Z., Li T., and Lastochkina K. 2018. Growth and photosynthetic performance of Calendula officinalis under monochromatic red light. International Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology 1: 123-132. DOI:10.22059/IJHST.2018.261042.248.
  7. Bayat L., Arab M., and Aliniaeifard S. 2020. Effects of different light spectra on high light stress tolerance in rose plants (Rosa hybridaSamurai’).  Journal of Plant Process and Function 9(36): 93-103. (In Persian)
  8. Chang-Chang C., Meng-Yuan H., Kuan-Hung L., Shau-Lian W., Wen-Dar H., and Chi-Ming Y. 2014. Effects of light quality on the growth, development and metabolism of rice seedlings (Oryza sativa). Research Journal of Biotechnology 9(4): 15-24.
  9. Dole J., and Wilkins H. 2004. Floriculture Principles and Species. Prentice-Hall 1021.
  10. Dehkhodai P., Rizi S., and Ghasemi Ghehsareh M. 2017. Investigation of quantity and quality of seedlings produced by Hassan Yousef, Atlas and geranium flowers under different quality and intensities of LED light. Master Thesis in Ornamental Plants. School of Agriculture. Shahrekord University. Iran 75.
  11. Esfandiari A., and Enayati V. 2014. Study of the variation in chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters in two durum wheat cultivars in response to salinity. Journal of Plant Research, 26(4): 375-386. (In Persian)
  12. Fukuda M., Ajima C., Yukawa T., and Olsen J. 2016. Antagonistic action of blue and red light on shoot elongation in petunia depends on gibberellin, but the effects on flowering are not generally linked to gibberellin. Environmental and Experimental Botany 121: 102-111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2015.06.014.
  13. Fahimi kuyerdi F., and Shamshiri M.H. 2016. Comparison of photosystem II efficiency in four Pistachio rootstocks under drought stress using chlorophyll fluorescence technique. Journal of Plant Process and Function 5(17): 95-108. (In Persian)
  14. Fan X.X., Xu Z.G., Liu X.Y., Tang C.M., Wang L.W., and Han X.L. 2013. Effects of light intensity on the growth and leaf development of young tomato plants grown under a combination of red and blue light. Scientia Horticulturae 153(1): 50-55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2013.01.017.
  15. Farjadi Shakib M., Naderi R., and Mashhadi Akbarjar M. 2012. The effect of spermidine foliar application on morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics of Iranian cyclamen (Cyclamen persicum Mill). Journal of Plant Ecophysiology 13: 96-113.
  16. Ghasemi Ghehsareh M., and Kafi M. 2011. Scientific and practical floriculture. Ghasemi Publications 2: 394-399. (In Persian)
  17. Hassibi P. 2011. Chlorophyll fluorescence. Available at https://paymanhassibi.blogfa.com/post/8. (Visited 25 September 2020).
  18. Hosseini A., Mehrjerdi M.Z., Aliniaeifard S., and Seif M. 2019. Photosynthetic and growth responses of green and purple basil plants under different spectral compositions. Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants 1: 741-752. DOI:1007/s12298-019-00647-7.
  19. Irigoyen J.J., Emerich D.W., and Sanchez-Diaz M. 1992. Water stress induced changes in concentrations of proline and total soluble sugars in nodulated alfalfa (Medcago sativa) plants. Physiologia Plantarum 84: 55-60. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.1992.tb08764.x.
  20. Javadi Asayesh A. 2019. The effect of complementary light spectra on vegetative growth of Verizia, 11th Iranian Congress: Horticultural Sciences, Urmia, Urmia University.
  21. Jai Hyunk R., Kyoung Sun S., Gab Lim C., Eui Shik R., Sheong Chun L., Seong Kyu C., Si-Yong K., and Chang-Hyu B. 2012. Effects of LED light illumination on germination, growth and anthocyanin content of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale). Korean Journal of Plant Research 25(6): 731-738. DOI:7732/kjpr.2012.25.6.731.
  22. Javanmardi J., and Emami S. 2013. Response of tomato and pepper transplants to light spectra provided by light emitting diodes. International Journal of Vegetable Science 19: 138-149. DOI:1080/19315260.2012.684851.
  23. Kapotis G., Zervoudakis G., Veltsistas T., and Salahas G. 2003. Comparison of chlorophyll meter readings with leaf chlorophyll concentration in Amaranthus vlitus: Correlation with physiological processes. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology 50(3): 395-397. DOI:1023/A:1023886623645.
  24. Lim S., Hahn E.J., Heo J.W., and Peak K.Y. 2004. Effect of LEDs on net photosynthetic rate, growth and leaf stomata of chrysanthem um plantlets in vitro. Scientia Horticulturae 101: 143-151. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2003.10.003.
  25. Lin K.H., Huang M.Y., Huang W.D., Hsu M.H., Yang Z.W., and Yang C.M. 2013. The effects of red, blue, and white light-emitting diodes on the growth, development, and edible quality of hydroponically grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata). Scientia Horticulturae 150: 86-91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2012.10.002.
  26. Lichenthaler H.K., and Wellburn A.R. 1983. Determination of total carotenoids and chlorophylls a and b of leaf extracts in different solvents. Biochemical Society Transactions 11: 591-592. https://doi.org/10.1042/bst0110591.
  27. Morrow R.C. 2008. LED Lighting in horticulture. HortSeience 43: 947-1950.
  28. Mitchell C.A., Dzakovich M.P., Gomez C., Lopez R., Burr J.F., Hernandez R., Kubota C., Currey C.J., Meng Q., Runkle E.S., Bourget C.B., Morrow R.C., and Both A.J. 2015. Light emitting diodes in Horticulture. Horticultural Reviews 43: 10-102. doi:1002/9781119107781.ch01.
  29. Massa G.D., Kim H.H., Wheeler R.M., and Mitchell C.A. 2008. Plant productivity in response to LED lighting. HortScience 43: 1951-1956. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.43.7.1951.
  30. Mehta P., Jajoo A., Mathur S., and Bharti S. 2010. Chlorophyll a fluorescence study revealing effects of high salt stress on photosystem II in wheat leaves. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 48: 16-20. doi: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2009.10.006.
  31. Mihaiela C.C., Doru Pamfil C.R.S., and RodicaMargaoan R. 2020. Gibberellic acid can improve seed germination and ornamental quality of selected cyclamen species grown under short and long days. Agronomy 1: 2-19.  https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10040516.
  32. Omrani B., Fallah S., and Taddayon M.R. 2015. The response of photosynthetic pigments and dry matter partitioning and nitrate content in purslane (Portulaca oleracea) to plant nutrition. Journal of Plant Process and Function 5(15): 181-194. (In Persian)
  33. Punetha P., Rawat T., Bohra M., and Trivedi H. 2018. Effects of various concentrations of GA3 and NAA on cuttings of hydrangea under shade net conditions. Journal of Hill Agriculture 9(1): 260-264. DOI : 5958/2230-7338.2019.00002.8.
  34. Pinho P., Moisio O., Terti E., and Halonen L. 2004. Photobiological aspects of crops plants grown under light emitting diodes. In Proceedings of the CIE Symposium. On LED light source: Physical measurments and visual and photobiological assessment. Tokyo. Japan. Pp. 73-76.
  35. Soltani A. 2004. Chlorophyll fluorescence and its application. Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Publications 1: 19-22. (In Persian)
  36. Strasser R.J., and Stirbet A.D. 2001. Estimiation of the energetic connectivity of PSII centres in plants using the fluorescence rise O-J-I-P. Fitting of experimental data to three different PSII models. Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 56: 451- 461. DOI:1016/S0378-4754(01)00314-7.
  37. Strasser B.J. 1995. Measuring fast fluorescence transients to address environmental questions: the JIP test. Photosynthesis: from light to biosphere. KAP Press, Dordrecht 1: 977-980. DOI:1007/978-94-009-0173-5_1142.
  38. Steele R. 2004. Understanding and measuring the shelf-life of food. Woodhead Publishing.
  39. Salachna P., Mikiciuk M., Zawadzi A., nska Piechocki R., Ptak P., Mikiciuk G., Pietrak A., and Lopusiewicz L. 2020. Changes in growth and physiological parameters of amarine following an exogenous application of gibberellic acid and methyl jasmonate. Agronomy 2-13. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10070980.
  40. Singh D., Basu Ch., Meinhardt-Wollweber M., and Roth B. 2014. LEDs for energy efficient greenhouse lighting. Hannover Centre for Optical Technologies. 17: 30167. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.04.117.
  41. Seif M., Aliniaeifard S., Arab M., and Zare Mehrjerdi. 2018. Effect of light qualities on photosynthetic electron transport chain in chrysanthemum leaves. International Symposium on Innovation and New Technologies in Protected Cultivation. ISHS Acta Horticulturae 1271: 169-176. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2020.1271.24.
  42. Toyoki K., Genhua N., and Michiko T. 2016. Plant Factory (An Indor Vertical Farming System for Efficient Quality Food Production). Academic Press. 401-405.
  43. Taylor M., Bruce L.D., Niels M., and Mark P. 2019. Effect of LED lighting and gibberellic acid supplementation on potted ornamentals. Horticulturae 1: 1-10. https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae5030051.
  44. Wang H., Gu M., Cui J., Shi K., Zhou Y., and Yu J. 2009. Effects of light quality on CO2 assimilation, chlorophyll-fluorescence quenching and expression of Calvin cycle genes and carbohydrate accumulation in Cucumis sativus. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B96(1): 30-37. DOI: 1016/j.jphotobiol.2009.03.010.
  45. Yamaguchi S., and Kamiya Y. 2001. Gibberellins and light-simulated seed germination. Journal of Plant Growth Regulators 20(1): 369–376. https://doi.org/10.1007/s003440010035.
  46. Yousefinia M., and Qasemian A. 2016. Evaluation of salinity effects on photosynthesis and chlorophyll a fluorescence of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Journal of Developmental Biology 8(1): 35-44. (In Persian)
  47. Zulfiqar F., Younis A., Abideen Z., Francini A., and Ferrante A. 2019. Bioregulators can improve biomass production, photosynthetic efficiency, and ornamental quality of Gazania rigens Agronomy 9: 773. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9110773.