عنوان مقاله [English]
As urbanization and population density increase, numerous issues arise in society, including a heightened risk of contagious diseases among the population, putting society at risk and in crisis. The purpose of this study was to identify preventive factors for individuals in the community to avoid attending urban parks during the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as to evaluate the capacity of these places to promote public health and their functionality during the pandemic.
Materials and Methods
Using library resources and semi-structured in-depth interviews, the research data questionnaire was obtained and for sampling and determination of sample size, simple random sampling method and Cochran formula related to unknown statistical population with error level of 0.05 were used, respectively. Then, in order to analyze the data, the first question which was prioritized was 4-1 points from the first to the fourth priority and the mean score was calculated and the same process was implemented for the second part questions, respectively. After collecting the questionnaires, the data were extracted and the frequency of each of the options in the questions was determined, then to investigate the first part question which was related to the barriers to the presence of people in urban parks during the pandemic period and should be prioritized, i.e. assigning numbers 1 to 4 based on the participants' opinions, the priority was 4 points for priority 1 score 4, priority 2 points. 3, priority 3 points 2 and priority 4 points 1 selected, After averaging the relevant score, comparing them with each other, the most important barriers were mentioned in the results section, respectively. Also, in order to investigate the questions of the second part, the first question was related to the capacity of urban parks to promote public health in pandemic conditions and should have been answered as a single choice for the very significant option of score 4, the significant option of score 3, the average score option 2 and the low-score option 1, and after the average of the relevant points and comparing it with the average capacity of the park was selected. Some of the general health promotion during pandemic were identified and mentioned in the results section.
Results and Discussion
The study revealed that the most significant barrier to people's presence in urban parks was the absence of health warning signs, with an average score of 3.1. Additionally, the capacity of urban parks to enhance public health received a very significant average score of 3.3. However, the performance of these parks during the COVID-19 pandemic was rated as poor, with an average score of 1.4. Other barriers identified to people's presence in parks include:
- Non-conformity of urban parks design with pandemic conditions
- Inappropriate layout of furniture in urban parks
- Inappropriate shape, material and type of furniture in urban parks in terms of public health
Also, the overall results of urban parks capacity in increasing public health and performance of these places during covid-19 pandemic are as follows:
In relation to the capacity of urban parks in order to increase public health in comparison with other urban uses, the results of the survey of the received data are that out of 230 people in the study, 99 people evaluated the capacity of these places as very significant (43%), 103 significant (45%), 21 moderate (9%) and 7 (3%).
In relation to how the current urban parks play a role in covid-19 pandemic compared to other urban uses, the results of the data survey are as such that out of 230 people present in the research, 5 people performed this Places were assessed as excellent (2%), 11 were good (5%), 53 were moderate (23%) and 156 were weak (70%).
Overall, it can be concluded that urban parks have the potential to significantly promote public health, but during the pandemic period, their effectiveness was limited due to various barriers. It is recommended that designers, urban planners, and health professionals work together to create multi-functional designs that address existing barriers as much as possible. This would enable people to attend urban parks during the pandemic with less concern and potentially reduce the negative consequences of pandemic outbreaks and quarantine.