عنوان مقاله [English]
Pomegranate is a native fruit tree to Iran and has the best growth and performance in subtropical climate conditions. In recent years, due to environmental stresses conditions such as high temperature, high light intensity and low irrigation water a large number of orchards have faced to physiological problems such as fruit craking, sunburn and a decrease in fruit quality. The high temperature along with high evaporation and transpiration can be considered as the main cause of these abnormalities, which causes disturbances in the process of plant metabolism and finally causes physiological disorders. Sunburn of the fruit is caused by high temperature and high sunlight intensity and has a negative effect on all the quality characteristics of the pomegranate fruit. Using net shade is one of the recommended ways to reduce the impact of climate change. The use of net shading in areas with high radiation levels has led to a decrease in the intensity of light radiation received by the canopy of the trees, which causes a decrease in the temperature of the leaf surface, and decrease the level of evaporation and transpiration in the trees.
Materials and methods
This research was conducted during 2019-2020 for 2 years in a private orchard in the Kohmar area of Kazeron city of Iran. ́Rabab̕ pomegranate trees that were planted at a distance of 5 x 5 m and 15 years old were used. In this research, the effect of different types of net shading was investigated. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with 9 treatments and three repetlications in two years. The experimental treatments included the use of net shading in white and green colors with two different shading (30% and 50%) and two implementation methods (on the base and on the canopy of the tree) which were compared with control trees (without cover). During the growing season, measurements were made in relation to leaf temperature, sunlight intensity, soil moisture, relative water content of leaves, fresh and dry matter of leaves, and prolin content, and at the time of harvest, the percentage of sunburn, cracking and aril paleness of the fruit, thickness of fruit peel and anthocyanin content of fruit juice in all treatments were measured.
Results and discusions
The use of net shading increased the quantitative and qualitative characterestics of pomegranate fruits. The results of this research showed that the use of white and green nets 50% and green net 30% on the base had the best results. By using the appropriate type of net shading, the temperature of the pomegranate tree was reduced by about 6 degrees Celsius. Net shading also reduced the light intensity by at least 50%; the reduction of light intensity in green nets was more than in white nets.
The highest relative water content was 85% in the green net shade (50% with base) treatment. Net shading significantly increased the water content of the leaves compared to the control.
The use of net shading significantly reduced the percentage of sunburn on fruits compared to the control. Sunburn was about 14% in the control treatment and less than 5% in the net shading treatments. Net shading reduced the percentage of fruit cracking from 15 percent in the control treatment to about 7 percent in all shading treatments.
The use of net shading as a cover for pomegranate trees reduces the temperature of the canopy of the plant by reducing the radiation of the sun, and by better maintaining the moisture of the soil of the pomegranate tree. It reduces the heat and drought stress condition and has a positive effect on the quantity and quality of the fruit produced. Among the treatments used, the use 3 types of net including 50% white nets on the base, and 30% and 50% green nets on the base had the best results. These treatments better than others in terms of shading percentage, temperature reduction, and improving the quantity and quality of pomegranate fruits . Net shading should be installed when the fruits are about 5 to 7 cm in diameter and will remain on the tree until mid-September. This type of tree shading did not leave any side effects on the quantity and quality of the fruits