تأثیر سطوح مختلف نیتروژن و فسفر بر شاخص‌های رشد اندام هوایی و زیر زمینی گیاه دارویی سرخارگل (Echinacea purpurea)

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

به منظور بررسی اثر عناصر نیتروژن و فسفر بر خصوصیات رشدی گیاه دارویی سرخارگل، آزمایشی گلدانی به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی در سه تکرار انجام شد. فاکتورهای آزمایش شامل دو کود نیتروژن (0، 1 و 2 گرم در کیلوگرم خاک) و فسفر (0، 75/0 و 5/1 گرم در کیلوگرم خاک) بود. به این منظور کود نیتروژن به صورت سرک و به طور مساوی در دو نوبت (ابتدای نشاء کاری و یک ماه بعد از نشاء) و کود فسفر در هنگام نشاء بر اساس مقادیر گفته شده به خاک اضافه شد. صفات مورد مطالعه شامل ارتفاع، تعداد شاخه جانبی، سطح و وزن برگ، وزن ساقه، نسبت وزن برگ به ساقه، وزن خشک اندام هوایی، تعداد و وزن گل، شاخص کلروفیل، مجموع طول ریشه، میانگین قطر ریشه، میانگین سطح ریشه، وزن خشک ریشه و نسبت ساقه به ریشه بوته بود. نتایج نشان داد برهمکنش دو تیمار کودی نیتروژن × فسفر در صفات وزن خشک برگ و نسبت وزن خشک اندام هوایی به ریشه معنی‌دار شد. حداکثر تعداد گل با 4/4 عدد در تیمار 1 گرم نیتروژن حاصل شد و بیشترین میزان وزن خشک گل به میزان 9/7 گرم در هر بوته در تیمار 2 گرم نیتروژن مشاهده شد. به‌طور کلی در صفات ارتفاع گیاه، تعداد گل و وزن خشک گل کاربرد 1 گرم نیتروژن و در صفات سطح و وزن خشک برگ و وزن خشک ریشه کاربرد 5/1 گرم فسفر در هر کیلوگرم خاک مطلوب بود. در نهایت نتایج نشان داد که کاربرد 2 گرم نیتروژن و 5/1 گرم فسفر در هر کیلوگرم خاک بهترین شرایط رشدی و عملکرد را در این گیاه ایجاد می‌کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Different Levels of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizers on Shoot and Root Characteristics of Echinacea purpurea

نویسندگان [English]

  • morteza Goldani
  • hossain zare
  • maryam kamali
Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Purple coneflower with scientific name Echinacea purpurea (L.) is an herbaceous perennial plant native to North America and is the one of the most important medicinal plants in the world. Root of Echinacea purpurea is commonly used around the world for stimulation of immune system. It is used as herbal medicine in respiratory infections, against malignant tumors and several inflammatory conditions However, nitrogen and phosphorus are the main elements that make up the proteins in plants and herbs for natural growth, especially is necessary in their productive organs. The results showed that nitrogen and phosphorus are important in continuation of flowering, the flowers fresh and dry weight and in essential oil. Fertilization of E. purpurea plants indicated that in absence or at low levels of nitrogen fertilization (0 and 100 kg acre-1), the addition of 50 and 100 kg acre-1 of potassium increased aerial parts, flower heads and root yield. Another report indicated that highest aerial biomass and root yield in E. purpurea was obtained with 100 kg ha-1 of nitrogen at constant rates of phosphorus and potassium. Polyphenol content was not influenced by nitrogen fertilization and values fluctuated between 2.4 and 5.4 % in the aerial part at flowering and between 1.6 and 3.5 % in the roots. Fertilization with nitrogen caused a decrease in the concentrations of echinoside. Echinoside content was 1.16 % without nitrogen fertilization, and 0.94 % with nitrogen fertilization.
Materials and Methods: To evaluate the effect of different levels of nitrogen and phosphorus on growth and yield of coneflower, a factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with three replications was conducted in Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Treatments were included three levels of nitrogen (0, 1 and 2 gr urea per kilogram of soil) and three levels of phosphate fertilizer (0, 0.75 and 1.5 gr of phosphate (P2O5) per kg of soil). Nitrogen fertilizer was applied to the soil before planting and one month after transplanting seedlings and phosphorus fertilizer was added to the soil after transplanting.
Results and Discussion: A difference in plant height at different levels of nitrogen was significant. By increasing the amount of nitrogen to 1 gr, plant height from 69.44 increased to 81.11 cm. Number of lateral shoots wasn’t significant in any levels of nitrogen and phosphorus. Increasing of nitrogen from 0 to 2 grams per kg of soil increased leaf weight from 2.4 to 7.5 g. However, with increasing levels of phosphorus, weight and leaf area increased. So that the treatment without phosphorus, dry weight was 4.37 grams and in 1.5 grams of phosphorus was the highest leaf dry weight with 5.77 gr. With increasing levels of nitrogen from 0 to 1 gram, shoot dry weight increased and with increasing nitrogen from 1 to 2 grams of weight shoot dry weight was low. Treatment with 1 gr of nitrogen per kilogram of soil had the highest stem dry weight per plant with 8.7 grams and showed significant differences with other treatment. Based on the results, the effect of nitrogen fertilizer treatments in the number of flowers and flower dry weight was significant at 1%, the effect of phosphorus on flower dry weight was significant. But the interaction of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer treatments in any levels was not significant. The highest SPAD index in1.5 gr of phosphorus and lowest (53.74) in the treatment without phosphorus was observed. Different levels of nitrogen fertilizer had not significant effect on the length and diameter of the root but a significant effect of phosphorus on root length was showed. It seems nitrogen in 1 gr per kg is related to increase photosynthesis and the growth of organs. Nitrogen with increasing in meristem cell division can increase vegetative growth and plant size. Zeinali et al (1387) reported that phosphorus can increase carbohydrates and mineral combinations in the shoots, flowers and roots. As a result increase in shoots, roots and flowers dry weight is related to nitrogen and phosphorus.
Conclusion: In general the results showed that with increasing nitrogen fertilizer height, flower number and shoot dry weight was significantly increased. Also, increasing the amount of phosphorus up to 1.5 gr per kilogram leads to an increase in plant roots. Due to the interactions of nitrogen and phosphorus in leaf dry weight and root dry weight, nitrogen and phosphorus in 2 and 5.1 gr per kg of soil had the best results.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chlorophyll index
  • Dry weight
  • Fertilizer
1- Abbasi B.H., Saxena P.K., Murch S.J., and Liu C.Z. 2007. Echinacea biotechnology: challenges and opportunities. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology – Plant, 43: 481–492.
2- Alijani M., Amini Dehaghi M., Modares Sanavi S.A.M., Mohammad Rezaye S. 2010.The effects of phosphorous and nitrogen rates on yield, yield components and essential oil percentage of Matricaria recutita L. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 26, 1.:128-138. (in Persian with English abstract).
3- Alizadeh Sahzabi1 A., Sharifi Ashorabadi E., Shiranirad A.H., bigdeli M., Abaszadeh B. 2007. The effects of different methods and levels of using nitrogen on some quality and quantity characteristics of Satureja hortensis L. 431 Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants,. 23(3):416-431. (in Persian with English abstract).
4- Ameri A.A., Nasiri Mahalati M.2009. Effects of nitrogen application and plant densities on flower yield, essential oils, and radiation use efficiency of Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.). (in Persian with English abstract). Pajouhesh-va-sazandegi, 21(4):133-144.
5- Bagherzadeh K. 1998. Effect of NPK on the phenolic thyme essential oil content and composition at the flowering stage. Master Thesis Plant Sciences, University of Isfahan.
6- Baybordy A. 2008. Effects of Nitrogen and phosphorus rates on cultural circumstance, grain yield and fat contents. Pajouhesh & Sazandegi, 80: 186 – 194
7- Beech D.F., and Norman M.j.T. 2002. The effect of time of planting on attributes of varieties of safflower. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 3: 140 -148.
8- Birt D.F., Widrlechner M.P., Hammer K.D.P., Hillwig M.L., Wei, J.Q., Kraus, G.A., Murphy P.A., McCoy J.A., Wurtele E.S., Neighbors J.D., Wiemer D.F., Maury, W.J., and Pric, J.P. 2009. Hypericum in infection: identification of anti-viral and anti-inflammatory constituents. Pharmaceutical Biology. 47(8): 774-782.
9- Chiu K.Y., Chuang S.J., and Sung J.M. 2006. Both anti-oxidation and lipid-carbohydrate conversion enhancements are involved in priming-improved emergence of Echinacea purpurea seeds that differ in size. Scientia Horticulturae, 108: 220–226.
10- Dastborhan S., Zehtab-Salmasi S., Nasrollahzadeh S., and Tavassoli.R A. 2011. Effect of biofertilizers and different amounts of nitrogen on yield of flower and essential oil and nitrogen use efficiency of German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 27(2):290-305. (in Persian with English abstract).
11- Drutu C.A., Gille E., and Axinte M. 2010. Influence of chemical fertilizers nitrogen and phosphorus on production and quality of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench. Institutul National de Cercetare, 78(2): 121-127.
12- Durieux R.P., Kamprath E.J., Jackson W.A., and Moll R.H. 1994. Root distribution of corn: the effect of nitrogen fertilization Agronomy Journal, 86(6): 958-962.
13- Fariborzi A. 1999. Effects of nitrogen fertilizer and harvest dates on yield and essential oil content of camomile flower (Matricaria chamomile). MS Thesis, University of Mashhad.
14- Gerendas J., and Pieper I. 2001. Suitability of the SPAD meter and the petiole nitrate test for nitrogen management in nursery potatoes. 92(10): 716-717.
15- Haghparast Tanha M. 1371. Nutrition and Metabolism plants. Publications Islamic Azad University, Rasht.
16- Hoag B.K., Zubriski, J.C., and Geiszler G.N., 1968. Effect of fertilizer treatment and row spacing on yield, quality and physiological response of safflower. Agronomy Journal, 60: 198-200.
17- Kafi. M., Zand, B., Kamkar, H., Sharifi, H., and Goldani, M. 2000. Plant Physiology (translation), Volume II. Press Mashhad SID.
18- Karami L., and khoshkui M. 2006. Effects of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium on yield and quantitative characteristics of cultivated and wild populations of German Chamomile (Chamomolla recutita L.). Iranain Journal Of Horticultural Science And Technology, 7(3):181-192. (In Persian with English abstract).
19- Kazemi F. 2002. Effects of water stress and nitrogen on the growth of mineral elements content in plant tissue and cumin oil. Master Thesis Plant Sciences, University of Tabriz. (in Persian with English abstract)
20- Khajehpour M.R. 2004. industrial plants. Publications University of Isfahan.
21- Kligler B. 2003. Echinacea. Am. Fam. Physician 67, 77–80.
22- Lopes A. S. 1996. Soils under Cerrado: A Success Story in Soil management In: IFA278 references (eds) IFA-PPI Regional Conference for Latin America and the Caribbean. International Fertilizer Industry Association, Paris. 10(2): 1-10.
23- Majidian M.L., Ghalavand A., Kamgar Haghighi A.A., and Karimian N. 2008. Effect of drought stress, nitrogen fertilizer and manure on chlorophyll meter reading, grain yield and yield components in grain maize cv. Iranian Journal of Crop Science, 10 (3) :303-330. (in Persian with English abstract).
24- Mardani nejad sh., Khaldbrin B., Sadat Y.A., morad shahi A., and Vazir pur M. 2001. Effect of ammonium nitrate on the shoots and essential oil in lavender. The National Herb Conference, 57-59. (in Persian with English abstract).
25- Mirnia S.G., Modarres S.M.A., Piri T. 2001. Effect of Different levels of Nitrogen and development of corn root.soil.water, 15(1):33-43.
26- Niakan M., Khavarynejad R.A., and Rezaee M.B. 2004. Effect of different rates of N/P/K fertilizer on leaf Fresh weight, dry weight, leaf area and oil content in Mentha piperita L. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research, 20 2: 131-148. (in Persian with English abstract).
27- Omidbaigi R. 2002. Study of Cultivation and Adaptability of Purple Coneflower (Echinaceae purpurea) in the North of Tehran. JWSS - Isfahan University of Technology. 6 (2) :231-241
28- Paun E., Mircea M., and Male S. 1986. Technology elements for some medicinal and aromatic plant spices, Bulletin de Academie des Science agricols et forestieres. 15: 89-96.
29- Shalaby A.S., El-Gengaihi S.E., Agina E.A., El-Khayat A.S., and Hendawy S.F., 1997. Growth and yield of Echinacea purpurea L. as influenced by planting density and fertilization. Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants, 5(1): 69-76
30- Tajuddin A., Yaseen M., Sharma S., Saproo M.L., and Husain A., 1995. Effects of fertilizer application on the flowering pattern of Rosa damascena. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 17: 173-176.
31- Vos J., and Vamderputten P.E.L. 1998. Effect of nitrogen supply on leaf growth, Leaf nitrogen economy and photosynthetic capacity in potato. Field Crops Res. 59: 63-72.
32- Zeinali H.M., Bagheri Kholanjani M.R. Golparvar M., Jafarpour A.H. 2008. Shirani Rad. Effect of different planting time and nitrogen fertilizer rates on flower yield and its components in German chamomile (Matricaria recutita). Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences, 10(3): 220-230