تعیین نیاز سرمایی و گرمایی چهار رقم زردآلو در استان خراسان

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی ومنابع طبیعی استان خراسان رضوی

چکیده

تعیین نیاز سرمایی و گرمایی درختان میوه نقش محوری در شناسایی ارقام دیر گل دارد. به این منظور مطالعه‌ای با هدف تعیین نیاز سرمایی و گرمایی چند رقم زردآلوی استان خراسان رضوی در شرایط آزمایشگاهی و مزرعه‌ای انجام شد. آزمایش به صورت فاکتوریل (دو فاکتور) در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با 3 تکرار انجام گرفت. فاکتور اول رقم در چهار سطح (نوری دیررس، دیررس مشهد، شمس مشهد و مشهد 44) و فاکتور دوم، ساعات سرمایی در پنج سطح (0،100،300،500،700) صورت گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که ارقام از نظر زمان گلدهی تفاوت زیادی نداشتند. درصد گل‌های باز شده در شرایط آزمایشگاه در ارقام نوری دیررس و دیررس مشهد نسبت به بقیه بالاتر بود. بیشترین درصد گلدهی در بین ارقام مربوط به رقم نوری دیررس با سپری شدن 700 ساعت سرما بود. نیاز سرمایی ارقام در شرایط مزرعه‌ای بر اساس مدل‌های یوتا، نیاز سرمایی کم، کارولینای شمالی و ساعات سرمایی بررسی شد که میزان واحدهای سرمایی برآورد شده توسط مدل یوتا 1588 واحد سرمایی و نسبت به سایر مدل‌ها بیشتر بود. نتایج ارزیابی نیاز گرمایی ارقام نشان داد نیاز گرمایی دو رقم نوری دیررس، شمس مشهد حدود 3300 واحد و در ارقام دیررس مشهد و مشهد-44، 3379 واحد محاسبه شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Determination of Chilling and Heat Requirement of Four Apricot Cultivars of Khorasan Razavi Province

نویسندگان [English]

  • zohreh hoshyar 1
  • ebrahim ganji moghadam 2
  • bahram abedy 1
1 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
2 Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center of Khorasan Razavi
چکیده [English]

Introduction:Dormancy is one of the most important stages in the life cycle of temperate plants and plants are required to exit from it with supply of chill unit. Flowering is defined with chilling and heat requirement. Owing to low chilling requirement, blooming happens too early and cold temperatures produce an important loss of yield by frost. In temperate fruits, awareness of the need buds to avoid winter frost is one of the main objectives in breeding programs. Studies concerning chilling and heat requirements are thus of special interest in these species, being very important for the choice of parents in breeding programs to create superior varieties of winter and spring frost (late flowering and resistant cold) provide. Utah is one of the most important model was introduced in 1974 by Richardson and colleagues. Effective temperature on cold storage in Utah model is 1/9-5/2. This is 6/1-9/12 in North Carolina and 8/1-9/13 in low chilling. Temperatures above 16 have negative effect on accumulation in Utah model. Later models were developed according to the Utah model that the Low chilling requirement (18) and the North Carolina (31) models are among them. Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) is belonging to warm temperate regions and due to the lack of compatibility and apricot spring frost in Khorasan Razavi province, the identification of varieties and genotypes with high compatibility and high thermal and cooling requirements to reduce the risk of early frost and increase production efficiency, seems important. The purpose of this study was to determine the need for chilling and heat requirement in apricot cultivars.
Material and methods: In this research, chilling and heating requirements of four local cultivars of apricot were evaluated under field and laboratory conditions. This experiment was conducted at agricultural research station Golmakan. A factorial (two-factor) experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design with tree replications. First factor was various apricot cultivars (Noori- Dirras, Mashhad- Dirras, Shams Mashhad and Mashhad-44) and the second factor was chilling hours in five levels (0,100,300,500,700). About 45 branches of deciduous trees of each variety were collected when the temperature was below 7 °C. Finally, samples were taken in the greenhouse with an average temperature of 23° C and 16 hours of light and flowering percentage was recorded. For determination of chilling requirement in Utah, low chilling requirement and the North Carolina was performed in CU and Heat based on the degree of development hours (GDH) was calculated. GDHs average hours of temperatures between 5-5 / 4 ° C) and for any amount of time, sleep disruption and blossoming flowers will be calculated by 50% (5). Data analysis was done by JMP 8 and Excel softwares.
Results: There were significant differences (1%) between chilling hours, cultivars and their interactions on flowering percent. .Under laboratory condition, cultivars began flowering after 100 hours in 4°C.The results showed that there was a significant difference between 500 and 700 hours of chilling requirement. Most of the flowering was related to 700 hours and the lowest one was in control.
There was a low difference in the chilling requirement. Heating requirement was 3300 growth degree hours (GDH) for Noori- Dirras and Shams Mashhad to 3379 GDH for Dirras- Mashhad and Mashhad-44 cultivars. Although little differences exist in flowering onset of cultivars, the differentiation of flowering period among cultivars was around one week. Various cultivars revealed little differences in flowering onset in locations they meet their chilling requirement. The chill units estimated by Utah model was 1588. Chill units in Low chilling model and North Carolina model was 1291 and 1331, respectively while in chill hours was about 1100. The heat units in Noori- Dirras, Shams Mashhad was about 3,300 and it were calculated 3379 for Dirras Mashhad and Mashhad-44, . The various models of chilling in the field conditions were calculated according to the Utah model. Chilling requirement by the North Carolina and Low chilling requirement models were calculated, respectively, 1331 and 1291 chill unit while in the chill hours, 1,100 hours were calculated for varieties. There was negative relationship between chill and heat requirement in flowering date.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chilling requirement
  • Heat requirement
  • Prunus armeniaca L
  • Utah model
-Jalili marandi R. 2002. Pomology. Jahad Daneshgahi. Urmia.
- Reazaei M. 2011. Evaluation of temperature requirements of six apricot cultivars under lab and field conditions in Shahrood. Journal of crop improvement, 1: 21-23. (in Persian with English abstract)
- Razavi F., Hajilou j. 2010. Determination of chilling requirements in different varieties of apricot and plum flower buds in comparison with hybrid plum × apricot. 7th horticulture congress. 5-8 September. Esfahan, Iran.
- Alburquerque N., Montiel F.G., Carrillo A., and Burgos L. 2008. Chilling and heat requirement of sweet cherry cultivars and the relationship between altitude and the probability of satisfying the chill requirements. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 64: 162-170.
- Anderson J.L., Richardson E.A., and Kesner C.D. 1986. Validation of chill unit and flower bud phenology models for “Montmorency” sour cherry. Acta Horticulture, 184: 71-78.
- Antonio M., Martinez T., and Antonio J. 2009. Metabolic activity of low chilling grapevine buds forced to break. Thermochimica Acta, 481: 28–31.
- Brown D.S. 1957. The rest period of apricot flower buds as described by a regression of time of bloom on temperature. Plant Physiology, 32: 75-85.
- Cesaraccio C., Spano D., Snyder R.L., and Duce P. 2004. Chilling and forcing model to predict bud-burst of crop and forest species. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 126: 1-13.
- Citadin I., Raseria M.C.B., Herter F.G., and Baptista da Silva J. 2001. Heat requirement for blooming and leafing in peach. Hort Science, 36:305-307.
-Couvillon G.A., and Erez A. 1985. Influence of prolonged exposure to chilling temperatures on bud break and heat requirement for bloom of several fruit species. American Society for Horticultural Sciences, 110: 47-50.
- Coville. 1920. The influence of cold in stimulating the growth of plants, Journal Agriculture Research, 20 :151–192.
- El-Shereif A., Mizutani F., and Onguso J.M. 2005. Effects of different temperatures and sampling dates on bud break and ACC content of Muscat Bailey grapevine buds. International Journal Botany, 1: 34-37.
- Erez. 1995. Means to compensate for insufficient chilling to improve bloom and leafing. Acta Horticulture, 395: 81–95.
- Erez A., Couvillon G.A., Hendershott C.H. 1979. The effect of cycle length on chilling negation by high temperatures in dormant peach leaf buds. Journal American Society Horticulture Science, 104: 573-576.
-Erez A. 1987. Bud dormancy; phenomenon, problems and solutions in the tropics and subtropics. Kluwer Academic Publishers. The Netherlands.
- Faust, M., A. Erez. L.j. Rowland, S.Y. Wang, and H. A.Norman. 1997. Bud dormancy in perennial fruit trees: Physiological basis for dormancy induction.maintenance, and release. Horticultural science. 4: 429-623.
- Garcia JE., Guerriero R., and Monteleone P. 1999. Apricot bud chilling and heat requirements in two different climatic areas: Murcia and the Tuscan Maremma. Acta Horticulture, 488: 289–294.
- Gianfagna T.J. and Mehlenbacher S.A. 1985. Importance of heat requirement for bud break and time of flowering in apple. HortScience, 20: 909-911.
- Gilreath P.R., and Buchanan D.W. 1981. Rest prediction model for low-chilling 'Sungold‘ nectarine, Journal American Society Horticulture Science, 106 :426–429.
- Hauagge R. and Cumming J.N. 1991. Phenotypic variation of length of bud dormancy in apple cultivars and related Malus species, Journal American Society Horticulture Science, 116 :100–106.
- Janick J., and Paull E.R. 2008. The Encyclopedia fruits and nuts. CABI.
- Martin G.C.1991. Bud dormancy in deciduous fruit tree. Academic Press, New York.183-225.
- Mohamad A.K.A., Omran Y.A.M. 2004. Chilling and heat requirements for bud breakand fruit development of some grape cultivars under Assiut conditions.Agriculture Science, 35: 1-9.
- Rattigan K., Hill S.J. 1988. Relationship between temperature and flowering in almond: effect of location.Australian. Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 27: 905-908.
- Richardson E.A., Seeley S.D., and Walker D.R.1974. A model for estimating the completion of rest for Redhaven and Elberta peach trees. HortScience, 9: 331-332.
-Rom R., and Arrington E.H. 1966. The effect of varying temperature regimes on degree days to bloom in the “Elberta” peach. American Society Horticulture Science, 88: 239-244.
- Ruiz D., Campoy J.A., and Egea J. 2007. Chilling and heat requirements of apricot cultivars for flowering. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 61: 254-263.
- Samish R.M., and Lavee S. 1982. The chilling requirement of fruit trees. In: Proceedings of the XVI International Horticultural Congress. 5: 372-388.
-Saure M.C. 1985. Dormancy release in deciduous fruit trees. Horticulture reviews, 7: 239-298.
- Scalabrelli G., Couvillon G.A. 1986. The effect of temperature and bud type on rest completion and the GDHºC requirement for budbreak in ‘Redhaven’ peach. American Society Horticulture Science 111:537–540.
- Scorza R., Okie W.R. 1990. Peaches (Prunus). In: Moore, J.N., Ballington, H.J. (Eds.), Genetic Resources of Temperate Fruit and Nut Crops. International Society for Horticultural Science, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
- Shaltout A.D., Unrath C.R. 1983. Shaltout and Unrath, Effect of some growth regulators and nutritional compounds as substitutes for chilling of delicious apple leaf and flower buds, American Society Horticulture Science, 108:898–901.
- Spiegel Roy P., Alston F.H. 1979. Chilling and post-dormant heat requirement as selection criteria for lateflowering pears. Hortscience, 54:115-120.
- Weinberger J.H.1950. Chilling requirements of peach varieties, American Society Horticulture Science, 56 :122–128.